Agriculture
Crafts and Trades

Traditional Tools, Harnesses, and Other Equipment Used in Work with Istrian Cattle

Thinking about the times past and our co-existence with the Istrian cattle, today - when we are fighting for the survival on the Earth - we remember the traditional tools, harnesses and other equipment that were used in work. All those items remind us of the past and its values. Since these are merely "exhibits" today, let us describe the most important tools in words and photos. The descriptions contain local names of certain tools and their parts. These are "voz" (four-wheeled cart), "jaram" (yoke), "komačela", "vrganj" (plough), "mužarjola" (muzzle), "resa" (tassels), "pašture", "sponse" (clamps), "košara" (basket) and "makina za sijati šenicu" (wheat-sowing machine).


VOZ
Four-wheeled Cart

Components of the four-wheeled cart: 

  1. levers -  wood (common oak).

  2. "timun" - wood (elm, acacia, common oak), reinforced with iron.

  3. the front "prema" - wood (elm, common oak), reinforced with iron, the main parts are:

    a) "Jezik" - tongue
    b) "karnižeta" with axle
    c) "oplin" with levers

  4. the back "prema" - wood, reinforced with iron; the main parts are:

    a) "pritoka" (elm, common oak)
    b) "kamižeta" with axle (elm, common oak)
    c) "oplin" with levers (elm, common oak)
    d) "žlajf"

  5. wheels (four) - wood, reinforced with iron; the main parts are:

    a) "glavina" - hub (sorb-tree, almond-tree)
    b) "radi" (acacia, common oak)
    c) iron "rigeta"
     

  6. "škale" (stairs) - wood; the main parts are:

    a) two wooden parts connected with two pegs (acacia)
    c) steps (ash, common oak)

  7. "škalun" - wood, the main parts are:

    a) two wooden parts connected with two pegs (acacia)
    b( steps with osiers

On exhibit at the Ethnographic Museum of Istria / Etnografski Musej Istre, Pazin - Pisino. Photographs by © Marisa Ciceran.

JARAM
Yoke for two heads

Made of wood (common oak, elm common maple), reinforced with iron Consists of the following parts:

1. yoke - wood (elm, common maple)
2. "kamba" - wood (ash, common oak, chestnut)
3. "duplica" - wood (hornbeam)
4. "trte" - wood (hornbeam)
5. "armenjaki" (three) -made of wood
6. "žbica" - spoke, wood (cornelian cherry)

Photograph from Istria, Terra Magica.

Komočela
yoke for one head

Made of wood, reinforced with iron. Consists of the following parts:

1. "komačela" - wood (common oak, common maple, elm)
2. "kamba" - wood
3. iron "vetice" 
4. "žbica" - spoke

Photograph from Kalendar 1990, Franina i Jurina.

Sources:

  • Text - Emilio and Aldo Štifanić. Traditional Tools, Harnesses, and other Equipment Used in Work with Istrian Cattle

  • Wagon photographs by Marisa Ciceran


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This page compliments of Marisa Ciceran & Mario Demetlica

Created: Tuesday, June 13, 2000; Last Updated: Monday, April 20, 2015
Copyright © 1998 IstriaNet.org, USA