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The bay of Piran: to the tradition of fishing and fishing rights

[Synopsis from Annales: Annals for Istrian and Mediterranean Studies, 14, 1998, pp. 7-18.]

The records, which indirectly substantiate the existence of fishing and sustenance by fish caught in Istra, date from the first half of the 6th century. This was the so-called coastal fishing, for the littoral population had, according to the common law, a right of fishing along its coast. In the mediaeval Europe, when the Frankish feudal social order was established, the right of fishing became one of the ruler's rights. The fishing rights, however, were in fact appropriated or obtained, with deeds of donation, by temporal and ecclesiastical lords as well as by towns. The same stood for Istra; in its western, coastal part, the right to use the major part of coastal waters was gradually obtained by the town communes of Trieste, Muggia, Koper, Izola, Piran, Umag, etc.

At Cape Ronek the Piran area once touched the land (and the sea) of the neighbouring Izola, while at Cape Savudrija it bordered on the "tiny state" of Umag. Piran controlled the coastal waters between the two capes.

From the mid-thirteenth century the supremacy of the Venetian Republic was implemented in the territory of western and southern Istra and was retained as such until the end of the 18th century. Venice, however, did not interfere with the direct ownership and use of the sea of the western Istrian town communes, a part of which were also the Piran coastal waters.

In the littoral town communes it was the town authorities that had the power to decide on the use of coastal waters. In Piran, the right of fishing in its waters was each year leased out by the commune at an auction. For this right the commune got approximately a fourth of the estimated catch in its waters, while the actual sums for the lease of separate fishing grounds ranged from 9 to 60 libras.

In the Piran fishing ranges the right of possession and partially only of easement was held (apart from the commune) also by some ecclesiastical communities and certain temporal and church individuals. In the autumn-spring season the fishing was limited to the owners and leaseholders of communal fishing rights, while in the warm part of the year (from April to September) the fishing grounds were at everybody's disposal, the only limitation being fishing with certain devices and appliances.

The people of Piran were fishing in the coastal belt of their water territory as well as outside it. They were fishing during the day as well as during the night, when they attracted fish with lights. As far as their fishing gear is concerned, nets, three-pronged forks, keep nets and hooks are referred to.

The actual implementation and organisation of fishing in the Piran waters was left to the owners and leaseholders of the Piran fishing grounds. In the exploitation of fishing areas they were allowed to participate directly, with their own personal work. At times, however, they were fishing with the aid of hired fishermen. The latter were paid in money, in a part of the catch, and at times in clothes.

With the fishermen the owners were able to make an agreement: they gave them the right of fishing and took a part of the catch for themselves. Private fishing grounds were leased out also for monetary compensation stipulated in advance. In numerous cases the leaseholders of communal fishing grounds operated only as a kind of fishing managers in the waters they held on lease. They leased out the right of fishing to various groups of fishermen.

The Napoleonic Wars and the occupation of this part of the world by the French brought, in respect of fishing rights, some (short-lived) novelties. As soon as the French left, however, the old rights of fishing were reinstated once more. In the 1830's the sea was proclaimed free, while the coastal belt - where fishing was reserved for the natives - was made a mile wide.

In 1848 the preferential rights of fishing were abolished.

After the fall of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, the western Istrian territory came under the rule of Italy. Fishing, however, was still controlled by the councils (the Bay of Piran therefore belonged to Piran).

In 1931, a uniform law on fishing was passed, with which the right of fishing was regulated.

The fishing competence in the Bay of Piran after the second World War are well illuminated by various laws and decrees published by Yugoslav and Slovene official journals. They enable us to ascertain that the competence over fishing in the Bay of Piran was claimed, after 1954, by the Republic of Slovenia, while its implementation was left to the Council of Piran. The inner part of the Bay was proclaimed a fishing reserve that enclosed the area between the coast and the line linking the salt repository at Bernardin with the quarry below Kanegra at Savudrija. Fishing in the reserve was allowed only with a special permit issued by the Council of Piran.

UDC 639.22/.23(262.3 Piranski zaliv)(091)"5/19"
Darja MIHELIĆ, Milko Kos Institute of History of the Scientific and Research Centre of the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Novi trg 4.


Synopses in other languages.


UDC 639.22/.23(262.3 Piranski zaliv)(091)"5/19"
Darja MIHELIĆ, Zgodovinski inštitut Milka Kosa ZRC SAZU, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Novi trg 4.

Piranski zaliv: k tradiciji ribolova in ribolovnih pravic

Annales: Anali za istrske in mediteranske študije, 14/98- str. 7-18

Prispevek prikazuje razvoj in tradicijo ribolova ter ribolovnih pravic na Piranskem od prvih pisnih zgodovinskih dokumentov v 6. stoletju do 20. stoletja. V zahodnem, priobalnem delu Istre so si razpolagalno pravico do glavnine obalnih voda postopno pridobile mestne komune, kar je veljalo tudi po sredi 13. stoletja, ko se je na prostoru zahodne in južne Istre do konca 18. stoletja uveljavila nadvlada Beneške republike, ki ni posegala v neposredno lastništvo in izrabo voda zahodnoistrskih mestnih komun. Napoleonove vojne in francoska zasedba so v pogledu ribolovnih pravic prinesle nekaj (kratkotrajnih) novosti, po odhodu Francozov pa je prišlo do ponovne vzpostavitve starega stanja in starih (mestnih in zemljiškogosposkih) pravic do ribolova. Po propadu avstroogrske monarhije je zahodnoistrsko obmo?je prešlo pod italijansko oblast. Ribolov je tedaj še nadalje pripadal ob?inam. Ribolovne pristojnosti v Piranskem zalivu po drugi svetovni vojni osvetljujejo zakoni in odredbe, ki so jih priob?ili jugoslovanski in slovenski uradni listi. Omogo?ajo ugotovitev, da si je nadzor nad ribolovom v Piranskem zalivu po 1954 lastila Republika Slovenija, njeno izvajanje pa je prepustila piranski ob?ini.


UDC 639.22/.23(262.3 Piranski zaliv)(091)"5/19"

Darja MIHELIĆ, Istituto storico Milko Kos, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Novi trg 4.

Golfo di Pirano: la tradizione della pesca e i relativi diritti

Annales: Annali di Studi istriani e mediterranei, 14, 1998, pp. 7-18

Lo studio esamina lo sviluppo e la tradizione della pesca, e dei relativi diritti, a Pirano dai primi documenti scritti del VI secolo, sino ai giorni nostri. Lungo la costa occidentale dell'Istria, i comuni si assicurarono gradatamente il diritto all'usufrutto di gran parte delle acque costiere, soprattutto a partire dalla metà del XIII secolo, quando nell'Istria occidentale e meridionale s'andò affermando, fino alla fine del XVIII secolo, il potere della repubblica di Venezia. Questa in ogni caso non interferì direttamente nella proprietà e nello sfruttamento delle acque delle città costiere. Le guerre napoleoniche e l'occupazione francese portarono alcune novità (di breve durata) nel settore, ma dopo la partenza dei francesi furono restaurati la situazione antecedente e i vecchi diritti (comunali e fondiari) sulla pesca. Dopo la caduta della monarchia austroungarica l'Istria occidentale entrò a far parte dell'Italia. La pesca continuò ad essere di competenza dei comuni. Le competenze legate alla pesca nel Golfo di Pirano dopo la seconda guerra mondiale sono riscontrabili in leggi e decreti, pubblicati dalla gazzetta ufficiale jugoslava e da quella slovena. Da essi si può costatare che dopo il 1954 fu la Repubblica di Slovenia ad assumere la giurisdizione sul settore, demandando la sua applicazione al comune di Pirano.


UDC 639.22/.23(262.3 Piranski zaliv)(091)"5/19"

Darja MIHELIĆ, Historisches Institut Milko Kos, ZRC SAZU, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Novi trg 4.

Die Bucht von Piran: zur Tradition des Fischfanges und der Fischereirechte

Annales: Annalen für istrische und mediterrane Studien, 14, 1998, S. 7-18

Der Beitrag legt die Entwicklung und Tradition des Fischfanges und der Fischereigesetze im Bereich von Piran von den ersten schriftlichen Dokumenten des 6. bis zum 20. Jhdt. dar. Im westlichen Küstengebiet Istriens erhielten die Stadtgemeinden schrittweise das Verfügungsrecht über den Großteil der Küstengewässer. Dies hatte auch nach der Mitte des 13. Jhdts. Geltung, als West- und Südistrien bis zum Ende des 18. Jhdts. unter die Oberherrschaft Venedigs kammen, das nicht unmittelbar in die Eigentums und Nutzungsrechte der westistrischen Stadtgemeinden über die Küstengewässer eingriff. Die Napoleonischen Heere und die französische Besetzung brachten hinsichtlich der Fischereigesetze einige (kurzdauernde) Neuerungen, nach deren Abzug jedoch wurde der alte Zustand wiederhergestellt und die alten Fischereirechte (der Städte und Grundherren) wieder eingeführt. Nach dem Untergang der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie gelangte der westistrische Bereich unter italienische Herrschaft. Die Fischerei fiel damit wieder den Gemeinden zu. Die Fischereibefugnisse nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in der Bucht von Piran werden durch die in den slowenischen und jugoslawischen Amtsblättern veröffentlichten Gesetze und Verordnungen erhellt. Daraus geht hervor, daß die Republik Slowenien nach 1954 die Fischereibefugnisse für die Bucht von Piran beanspruchte, deren Ausführung aber den Gemeinden von Piran überließ.

Source:

  • ZRS, ANNALES - http://www.zrs-kp.si/Zaloznistvo/annales/anali14/mihelic.htm#eng

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