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Orchid - Orchidea - Kulavica

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Scientific name:

Serapias istriaca



Italian name:

Serapide istriana

Croatian name:

istarski kukavica

German name:

Istrischer Zungenständel

Slovenian name:

Istrski serap

Serapias istriaca M. L. PERKO, spec. nov.

ref.: Ber. Arbeitskrs. Heim. Orchid. 15 (2): 13-27.

Description: Plant erect, 14-34 cm tall. Stem green, in the upper part purple. Leaves 4-7, narrow lanceolate, grooved folded, slanting ascending, in the upper part recurved. Basal leaves rosetted, in the lower part embracing the stem. First and second cauline leave often only 1 cm long. Third cauline leave until 13 cm long, 0.6-1 cm broad. Forth cauline leave 8-12 cm long, 0.6-1.4 cm broad. Fith cauline leave 7-12 cm long, 0.7-1.5 cm broad. Sixth caulin leave 6-9 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm broad. The uppermost cauline leave 4-7 cm long, 1.2-1.8 cm broad, like a floral leave, reddish purple, embracing the stem. Floral leaves 3-5 cm long, 1.5-2.2 cm broad, greyish purple with dark purple veins. Inflorescence loose or little assembled, with (1-) 3-6 (-7) flowers. Sepals and petals 2-2.5 cm long, outside greyish purple with dark purple veins, at the base little greenish, inside purple, forming a hood. Sepals rounded at the base, to 1.1 cm broad, becoming linear at the summit.Petals rounded at the base, 0.5-0.8 cm broad, becoming oblong to linear at the summit. Lip 3.3-4.7 cm longum, divided into a hypochil (rearpart of the lip) and an epichil (frontpart of the lip), mostly hairy at the central part between hypochil and epichil with light purple or whitish hairs. Liphairs 2 mm long. Hypochil at the base with 2 callosities, 4 mm long, keels 15-20° diverging. Hypochil 1.9-2.1 cm broad, 1.1-1.4 cm long, in the central part whitish to light purple, the outer parts dark purple. Epichil 2.2-3.5 cm long, 1.0-1.4 cm broad dark red-brown to dark brown or dark purple with dark purple veins. Lateral lobes of the hypochil almost not or only 2-3 mm longer than the hood of the sepals. Hypochil not overlapping the epichil or not more than 1 mm. Ovary 1-1.5 cm long, 3 mm in diameter. Gymnostem (ovary pillar) narrow, 15 mm long. Pollen-mass dark olive-green. Plant allogamous (cross-pollination). Flowering from the middle of May to the middle of June.

Descriptio: Planta erecta, 14-34 cm alta. Caulis viridis, in parte superiore purpureus. Folia 4-7, anguste lanceolata, canaliculate complicata, oblique ascendentia, in parte superiore decurva. Folia basalia rosulata, in parte inferiore caulem vaginate amplectens. Folium primum et secundum saepe ad 1 cm longum. Folium tertium ad 13 cm longum, 0,6-1 cm latum, folium quartum 8-12 cm longum, 0,6-1,4 cm latum, folium quintum 7-12 cm longum, 0,7-1,5 cm latum, folium sextum 6-9 cm longum, 0,8-1,5 cm latum. Folium caulinum superiorum 4-7 cm longum, 1,2-1,8 cm latum, bracteaeformum, rubro-purpureum, caulem vaginate amplectens. Bracteae 3-5 cm longae, 1,5-2,2 cm latae, cano-purpureae, obscure purpure nervosae. Inflorescentia laxa ad parve compressa, flores (1) 3-6 (7). Sepala et petala 2-2,5 cm longa, fronte cano-purpurea, purpure nervosa, basi parve virides, in parte interiore purpurea, galeam formant. Sepala basi rotundata, ad 1,1 cm lata, apicem versus lineares. Petala basi rotundata, 0,5-0,8 cm lata, apicem versus anguste lineares. Labellum 3,3-4,7 cm longum, divisum in hypochilium et epichilium partium, maxime in medio parte pilis claro-purpureis vel candidis pilosum. Pili labelli 2 mm longi. Basi hypochilii calli 2, 4 mm longi, carinae norma 15-20º divergentes. Hypochilium 1,9-2,1 cm latum, 1,1-1,4 cm longum, in medio parte clare purpureum, in latibus partibus obscure purpureum. Epichilium 2,2-3,5 cm longum, 1,0-1,4 cm latum, obscure rubro-fuscum, obscure fuscum vel obscure purpureum, atro-purpure nervosum. Lobi laterali hypochilii e galea vix vel ad 2-3 mm eminent. Hypochilium explicatum epichilium in latibus partibus vix vel modo 1 mm impendens. Ovarium 1-1,5 cm longum, 3 mm diametro. Gymnostemium angustum, 15 mm longum. Pollinia obscure olivo-virides. Planta allogama. Floret inter mense Maii (dimidiam partem) et dimidiam partem Junii.

Holotypus: Croatia (Hrvatska), Istria, prope Pula, 20 m s. m., 18.5.1997, leg. M. L. Perko. In herbario Kärntner Landesherbar (KL) conservatur.

Etymologia: Ex nomine paeninsulae "istria" species nominatur.

Photographed by:

  • Dr. Ulrike Starmühler on 17.05.1997 in South-Istria, south of Premantura/Promontore in 25 m alt.


  • Text -
  • Translation, photograph and alternate names - courtesy of Dr. Walter Starmühler (email:

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This page is compliments of Marisa Ciceran and Walter Starmühler

Created: Thursday, August 11, 1999; Last updated: Sunday, August 17, 2014
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