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Austria-Hungary
Heraldry
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Austro-Hungarian (Dual) Monarchy

Austria-Hungary, or the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (German: Oslerreichisch-ungarische Monarchie or Osterreichischungarisches Reich), was the official name of a country situated in central Europe, bounded on the East by Russia and Rumania, South by Rumania, Servia, Turkey and Montenegro, West by the Adriatic Sea, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the German Empire, and North by the German Empire and Russia. It occupied about a sixteenth part of the total area of Europe, with an area (1905) of 239,977 sq. m. 

The monarchy was very often called unofficially the Dual Monarchy and consisted of two independent states: the kingdoms and lands represented in the council of the empire (Reichsrat), unofficially called Austria (q.v.) or Cisleithania; and the “lands of St Stephen’s Crown,” unofficially called Hungary (q.v.) or Transleithania. It received its actual name by the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph I. of the 14th of November 1868, replacing the name of’the Austrian Empire under which the dominions under his sceptre were formerly known. World War I saw the end of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.

The two separate states each had its own parliament and its own government. The unity of the monarchy was expressed in the common head of the state, who bore the title Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary, and in the common administration of a series of affairs, which affected both halves of the Dual Monarchy. These were: (1) foreign affairs, including diplomatic and consular representation abroad; (2) the army, including the navy, but excluded the annual voting of recruits, and the special army of each state; (3) finance in so far as it concerned joint expenditure.

In 1901, the monarchy had a population of 45,405,267 inhabitants, comprising therefore within its borders, about one-eighth of the total population of Europe. By the Berlin Treaty of 1878 the principalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina with an area of 19,702 sq. m., and a population (1895) of 1,591,036 inhabitants, owning Turkey as suzerain, were placed under the administration of Austria-Hungary, and their annexation in 1908 was recognized by the Powers in 1909, so that they became part of the dominions of the monarchy.

Heraldry

The former Austrian-Hungarian Empire was spread over a large part of Central Europe, comprising the present countries of Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slowakia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia as well as parts of present Poland, Romania, Italy, Ukraine, Moldova and the former Yugoslavia. Therefore most territorial arms within the empire no longer correspond to present states or provinces, and are discussed in this section. Parts that do correspond with present territories are dealt with in their respective modern countries, such as the present Austrian States, or are dealt with both in this section and in the appropriate country section not included here.

Austria

Left [click to enlarge]: This is the so-called small arms of Arch-Duchy of Austria, one of the two main territories in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. The arms combine the lion of the Habsburg dynasty with the silver bar of the Duchy of Austria and the arms of Lotharingen (now Lorraine, France).

The original arms of Austria are the silver bar on a red shield. It appears for the first time in 1230 on the seal of Duke Friedrich II. The origin of the arms is not known, they are likely derived from the ducal banner. There have been many stories on the origin of the arms, some based on genealogical theories, others on fantasies, such as the white mantle of Duke Leopold V, which was stained with blood during the siege of Akkon in 1190/91, during one of the crusades.

Already in 1325 the eagle was added as the supporter behind the shield. The eagle was the Imperial Eagle as the Dukes of Austria, from the Habsburg dynasty, were Kings (and Emperors) of the Holy Roman Empire at the time. Ever since the Habsburg family has used the eagle, first one-headed, later two-headed as the main supporter. The shield itself always was composed of the arms of the many territories the Emperors put their claims on.

Hungary

Right [click to enlarge]: The arms of Hungary as used by the Austrian-Hungarian Emperors during the late 19th century. The arms were officially granted on February 22, 1874. The arms show on the main shield the combined arms of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Siebenbürgen and Fiume. The first escutcheon shows the historical arms of Hungary (see under Hungary) and the smallest escutcheon shows the arms of the Habsburg dynasty.

The crown is the crown of St. Stepha, see under Hungary

Historical Hungarian Provinces

The former Kingdom of Hungary was the Eastern part of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. It comprised of present Hungary as well as parts of Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Romania, Poland and Slowakia. The Kingdom was divided in the 19th century into 63 different provinces. The Kingdom of Croatia (8 provinces) was a separate kingdom in name, and was part of The Hungarian Holy Crown, and thus included in this section and are shown in bold.

The arms of the 71 provinces in the Hungarian part of the empire (not shown) were used from 1886-1919. The provinces were official counties, but more equivalent to the modern province, hence the use of the word province. The countries in which the province is situated at present is indicated by the country codes behind the name. 

Abaúj-Torna (HU-SK)
Alsó-Fehér (RO)
Arad (RO-HU)
Árva (SK-PL)
Bács-Bodrog (YU-HU)
Baranya (HU-HR)
Bars (SK)
Békés (HU)
Belovár-Körös (HR)
Bereg (UA-HU)
Beszterce-Naszód (RO)
Bihar (RO-HU)
Borsod (HU)
Brassó (RO)
Csanád (HU-RO)
Csík-, Gyergyó-, és Kászonszék (RO)
Csongrad (HU-YU)
Esztergom (HU-SK)
Fejér (HU)
Fofaras (RO)
Gómór (HU-SK)
Györ (HU-SK)
Hajdú (HU)
Háromszék (RO)
Heves (HU)
Hont (HU-SK)
Hunyad (RO)
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (HU)
Kolozs (RO)
Komárom (HU-SK)
Krassó-Szörény (RO)
Küküllö(RO)
Lika-Krbava (HR)
Liptó (SK)
Máramaros (UA-RO)
Maros-Torda (RO)
Modrus-Fiume (HR)
Moson (AT-HU-SK)
Nagy-Küküllö (RO)
Nógrád (SK-HU)
Nyitra (SK)
Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun (HU)
Pozsega (HR)
Pozsony (HU-SK)
Sáros (SK)
Somogy (HU)
Sopron (HU-AT)
Szabolcs (HU)
Szatmár (RO-HU)
Szeben (RO)
Szepes (SK-PL)
Szerém (HR-YU)
Szilágy (RO)
Szolnok-Doboka (RO)
Temes (RO-YU)
Tolna (HU)
Torda-Aranyos (RO)
Torontál (YU-RO-HU)
Trencsén (SK)
Turóc (SK)
Udvarhely (RO)
Ugocsa (UA-RO)
Ung (UA-SK-HU)
Varasd (HR)
Vas (HU-AT-SI)
Veröce
Veszprém (HU)
Zágráb (HR)
Zala (HU-HR)
Zemplén (SK-HU-UA)
Zólyom (SK)

Cities

In the banner below (date unknown), Pola is shown to be directly below Vienna and next to Prag. On the right side are Cattaro, Fiume, Spalato, Triest, and Zara. To the left are Görz (Gorizia), Gradiska (Gradisca), Raab (Arbe), and Ragusa. 

(click image to enlarge)

Territories

Territories originally within the area of the Habsburg Empire at some time between 1814-1918 and transferred to other national jurisdictions after World War I. The following 43 territories (and their emblems which are shown below) were either part of Austria-Hungary or the emperors had (historical) claims on these territories (names are shown as used in the official imperial title, not present names).

Auschwitz (Duchy)
Bohemia (Kingdom)
Bosnia (Territory)
Bregenz (County)
Brixen (Principality)
Bukowina (Duchy)
Cattaro (Estate)
Croatia (Kingdom)
Dalmatia (Kingdom)
Feldkirch (County)
Friaul (Duchy)
Galicia (Kingdom)
Görz (Principality)
Gradisca (Principality)
Guastalla (Duchy)
Habsburg (Principality)
Hohenembs (County)
Illyria (Kingdom)
Istria (County)
Jerusalem (Kingdom)
Krain (Duchy)
Krakau (Arch-Duchy)
Kyburg (Principality)
Lodomeria (Kingdom)
Lorraine (Duchy)
Modena (Duchy)
Moravia (County)
Nieder Lausitz (Lower Lusatia) (County)
Lower Silezia (Duchy)
Ober Lausitz (Upper Lusatia) (County)
Upper Silezia (Duchy)
Parma and Piacenza
(Duchy)
Ragusa (Duchy)
Siebenbürgen (Principality)
Slavonia (Kingdom)
Sonnenberg (County)
Teschen (Duchy)
Trient (Principality)
Triest (Estate)
Tuscany (Arch-Duchy)
Windischen Mark (Estate)
Zara (Duchy)
Zator (Duchy)

In the next banner (date unknown), Istria is part of Küstenland and is the second emblem down in the left vertical row.

(click image to enlarge)

[another copy]


Auschwitz

The Duchy of Auschwitz (now Oswieczim Poland) was bought by the Polish Kings in 1457. After the Polish Division in 1772 the Duchy became part of Austria-Hungary. The eagle is either the old eagle of Silezia, or the eagle of Poland. The colours have changed to silver and blue in 1806.


Bohemia

Bohemia was a Duchy, which became a Kingdom in 1196. The Kingdom is now mainly in the Czech Republic, but historically also parts of Poland, Italy and Germany belonged to Bohemia. On October 24, 1526, the Dukes of Austria acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, which remained part of Austria-Hungary until 1919.

The oldest arms of the Kings of Bohemia showed in silver a black eagle, covered with golden tears (still used by the Italian region Trient). The silver double-tailed lion was introduced by King Ottokar II in 1249. Ever since the double-tailed lion remained on the arms of Bohemia. The lion now forms part of the national arms of the Czech Republic, as well as many towns in the Czech Republic (such as Becov, Chotebor, Peruc and Zinkovy and Germany (such as Dudeldorf, Gräfenberg and Plech).


Bosnia

Bosnia (nearly identical to present Bosnia) was acquired by Austria in 1878 at the Berlin Convention. The territory received the ancient arms used by the Hungarian Kings, who ruled Bosnia until 1526.


Bregenz

The County of Bregenz was a possession of the Counts of Montfort who sold the county in 1451 and 1523 to the Dukes of Austria. The county is at present in the State of Vorarlberg, Austria.

The arms were officially granted in 1529, but are based on the oldest arms of the Counts of Bregenz. The city of Bregenz uses the same arms.


Brixen

The Principality Brixen (now Brixen / Bressanone, Italy) was from 1179-1803 an independent state ruled by the Abbots of Brixen Abbey. In 1803 it was incorporated into Austria-Hungary. The arms show the Paschal Lamb, symbol of St. John, the patron saint of the Abbey. The arms are also used by the modern city of Brixen.

The current Brixen-Bressanone is in the province of: Trentino-Alto Adige-Südtirol. Its arms were granted in 1966, but are based on older seals. The oldest known seal with the lamb dates from 1297. As arms the lamb is known since 1304. The colours are known since the end of the 14th century from the book of the St. Christophorus guild in Arlberg.

On November 13, 1928 new arms were granted, with in the upper half a city wall with gate on a grassy bottom and in the lower half the lamb. The old arms were restored in 1966.

Literature: Prünster, H. : Die Wappen der Gemeinden Südtirols. Etschlandbücher, Veröffentlichungen des Landesverbandes für Heimatpflege in Südtirol, Band 7, Bozen (Bolzano), 1972.; Gall, F.: Österreichischer Wappenkalender, 1960. 


Bukowina

The Duchy of Bukowina (now partly Romania, partly Ukraine) was created in 1849, but was part of Austria-Hungary since 1777 when the Austrian emperors acquired the area from the Turks. The meaning of the arms is not known.


Cattaro

The Estate of Cattaro (now Kotor, State of Montenegro, Yugoslavia) was acquired by Austria-Hungary in 1797 and officially became part of Austria-Hungary in 1814. Prior to 1797 the city belonged to Serbia, Turkey, Hungary and Venice.

The arms were created by the Doges of Venice and symbolise the Kingdom of Albania, as they imagined that Cattaro historically belonged to Albania. The present city of Kotor still uses the lion.


Croatia

The Kingdom of Croatia (nearly identical to present Croatia) was created by King Koloman of Hungary in 1105, after he defeated the Croats. Ever since the territory was officially part of Hungary, even though a large part was under Turkish rule for many centuries.

The arms first appear on a coin from King Ludwig II of Hungary from 1525. The origin of the arms is not clear. The arms are still used without helmet and crest by the Republic of Croatia.


Dalmatia

Dalmatia is now part of Croatia and comprised a large part of the Adriatic coastline. Historically the area was divided by Hungary and Venice. The Hungarian Kings acquired a large part of the area in the 12th century. The whole territory became part of Austria-Hungary in 1797. From 1805-1814 Dalmatia was part of the Kingdom of Illyria, a vassal state of Napoleon.

The arms of Dalmatia show three lion heads. Their origin is unknown, but the arms were part of both the large arms of the Kings of Hungary and the Doges of Venice. The heads were first uncrowned, but in the late 15th century the crowns appeared, but only in Hungarian arms.

The arms are now part of the 'crown' on the Croatian national arms.


Feldkirch

The County of Feldkirch was a possession of the Counts of Montfort who sold the county in 1376 to the Dukes of Austria. The county is at present in the State of Vorarlberg, Austria.

The arms are the arms of the Counts of Montfort (see also Vorarlberg)


Friaul

The Duchy of Friaul (now Friuli, Italy) was a separate state from 1077 until 1420 when it was conquered by Venice. The title was adopted by the Doges of Venice and the golden eagle was added to the arms of Venice. When the territory was acquired by Austria-Hungary the title and arms became part of the official title of the Emperor.


Galicia

The Kingdom of Galicia (now part of Poland) originally was a Ruthenian (=now part of Ukraine) principality, which became a Kingdom in the 13th century. In 1340 the kingdom became part of Poland. The Hungarian Kings, however also claimed the territory. After the first Polish division in 1772 it was acquired by Austria, but was incorporated into the Austrian part of the Empire.

The arms were first used in the arms of King Mathias of Hungary, as a claim for the territory in 1475. Later Kings of Hungary and Emperors of Austria-Hungary used the three golden crowns for Galicia. In 1804 the red bar and the crow, derived from the arms of Halicz were added. Halicz was the original capital of Galicia. From 1772-1918 Lember (now Lwow, Ukraine) was the capital. 


Görz

The Principality of Görz (now Gorizia/Gorica, partly Italy, partly Slovenia) was acquired by Austria in 1500. The origin of the arms is not known, but the composition is known since 1304. The number of bends in the lower half has varied during the centuries from 4 to 8, but otherwise the arms have not changed.


Gradisca

The Principality of Gradisca (now Italy) was a county until 1647 and was part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1647 it was made a principality for the Princes of Eggenberg as a loan of Austria. When the dynasty became extinct in 1717 the principality became fully part of Austria. The arms were newly devised in 1647, their meaning is not known.


Guastalla

The Duchy of Guastalla (now part of Italy) was created in 1621, and was since 1539 (as a county) a possession of the Gonzaga family. It was acquired by the Habsburg dynasty in 1746. In 1748 it was joined with the Duchy Parma and Piacenza, and became part of Austria together with Parma and Piacenza in 1847.

The arms are identical to the arms of the Gonzaga family, granted by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1432.


Habsburg

The County (later Principality) of Habsburg never formed part of Austria-Hungary, but was part of The Holy Roman Empire and is now in Switzerland. The Dukes of Austria, later emperors of Austria-Hungary, however, were from the Habsburg dynasty. Habsburg was first mentioned in 1020 as a castle. The Habsburg family rapidly became one of the most powerful families in Europe, after acquiring Austria and later also Bohemia and Hungary.

The first use of a lion as the arms of Habsburg dates from 1186. Ever since the lion has been the arms of the County and the family. 


Hohenembs

The County of Hohenembs (now in Austria) was an Imperial loan, which became part of Austria proper in 1765. The arms are identical to the arms of the Counts of Embs, later Hohenembs. The arms are now used by the municipality of Hohenems


Illyria

The Kingdom of Illyria was created in 1816 by Emperor Franz I from the Austrian possessions along the coast of the Adriatic Sea, together with parts of present Italy, Croatia, Austria and Slovenia. The name and arms were derived from the Roman province of Illyria. The galley appeared on Roman coins for the area. Historically Illyria was what is now Albania, while the classical Illyria was never part of the Kingdom that was created in 1816.


Istria

The Austro-Hungarian County of Istria (now split between Croatia, Slovenia and Italy), passed to the Duke of Carinzia in 976, became a Margravate of Weimer in 1040, then a portion became a tributary of Venice in 1149 while the other northeast portion of the peninsula went to Gorizia in 1209 and then in 1374 passed to Austria - with individual feudal towns and territories periodically switching hands along the way, including a brief rule by over all by Napoleon. On October 14, 1814 all of Istria was acquired by Austria-Hungary, after World War I it was annexed to Italy, after World War II it was split into Italy and Yugoslavia, and then in 1991 it arrived at the current split between Croatia, Slovenia and Italy.

The arms used by Austria-Hungary are identical to the arms used for Istria by the Doges of Venice in the 13th century.


Jerusalem

The Kingdom of Jerusalem (now in Israel, Palestine and Jordan) never formed part of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. The Emperors, however, put a claim on the Kingdom, which existed during the crusades. The claim was based on a long range of successions. The Kingdom was first claimed by the Kings of Antiochia (now in Syria). In 1277 Maria of Antiochia granted the claim to King Charles II of Sicily from the Anjou dynasty. Through marriage the arms appeared in the arms of the Dukes of Lorraine in 1420. The Duchy of Lorraine became a possession of the Habsburg family, later Emperors of Austria-Hungary.

The Kings of Aragon and through these the Spanish Kings also claimed the succession from the King of Sicily and used the same cross in their arms.

The cross for the Kingdom of Jerusalem dates from the 12th century and is one of the few exceptions in heraldry where a shield consists only of the two metals, silver and gold. 


Krain

The territory of Krain (Krajina, now in Slovenia and Croatia) was gradually acquired by the Habsburg dynasty in the 13th and 14th centuries. In 1364 it was first mentioned as a Duchy. When the arms were devised is not known, but in 1463 the arms were officially granted and slightly changed to the above arms. The composition thus dates from prior to 1463.


Krakau

The Arch-Duchy of Krakau (now Krakow Poland) became part of Austria-Hungary during the third Polish division in 1795. In 1814 the Duchy became an independent State, but in 1846 it was incorporated into Galicia and thus part of Austria-Hungary again. The title was created in 1806.

The arms show the arms of the city of Krakow on a shield with the Polish eagle.


Kyburg

The County Kyburg (now in Thurgau, Switzerland) never really belonged to the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, but was a possession of the Habsburg family in Switzerland. It was acquired by the Habsburg family in 1264. The arms are the arms of the former Counts of Kyburg.

The arms formed the base for the arms of the Canton Thurgau.


Lodomeria

The Kingdom of Lodomeria (Wlodzirmierz, the capital city with the same name now is part of Ukraine) never really existed. The territory Wlodirmircz became part of Poland in 1340. The territory was claimed by the Hungarian Kings, who created the symbolic title. The arms were added to the Hungarian arms in 1252 by King Bela. After the Polish division in 1772 the area became part of Austria-Hungary. The meaning or origin of the arms is not known.


Lorraine - Lotharingen

The Duchy of Lotharingen (now Lorraine in France) was a large Duchy in the east of present France. It was an independent state, which was conquered by France in the 16th and 17th century. The Duchy never formed part of Austria-Hungary, but the emperors acquired the title Duke of Lotharingen after a marriage in 1736. Ever since the historical arms of Lotharingen have been used as one of the main quarters in the arms and most important titles of the emperors.

See for the history Lorraine.


Modena

The Duchy of Modena (now part of Italy) was created in 1452. It was acquired by the Austrian Emperors in 1814 and was incorporated into Austria-Hungary.

The arms are identical to the arms of the Este family, Dukes of Modena from 1452-1859.


Moravia

The County Moravia (German Mähren, now Morava, Czech Republic) became part of the Austrian Empire in 1526. The chequered eagle has been used by the Counts of Moravia since Wenzel II (1292). The original colours of the eagle silver and red, were changed to gold and red in 1462.


Nieder Lausitz (Lower Lusatia)

The County Nieder Lausitz (now in Saxony, Germany) became a possession of the Kings of Bohemia in 1364. On May 30, 1635 Ober and Nieder Lausitz were sold to the Dukes of Saxony. The Kings of Bohemia, and their successors, the Austrian Emperors, however, kept using the title of Markgrave of Nieder Lausitz.

The arms are identical to the arms of the city of Luckau, which still uses the arms today. The arms are known as such since the 14th century. 


Ober Lausitz

The County Ober Lausitz (now in Saxony, Germany) was created in the territory of Bautzen, and became a possession of the Kings of Bohemia in 1329. In 1377 the name was changed into Duchy of Görlitz. On May 30, 1635 Ober and Nieder Lausitz were sold to the Dukes of Saxony. The Kings of Bohemia, and their successors, the Austrian Emperors, however, kept using the title of Markgrave of Ober Lausitz.

The arms are identical to the arms of the city of Bautzen, which still uses the arms today. The arms are known as such since the 14th century. 


Parma and Piacenza

The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (now part of Italy) was created in 1545 by Pope Paul III. The duchy was ruled by the Farnese family until 1737. The area became a possession of the Bourbon family. In the Paris Convention in 1817 it was decided that when the family became extinct, the area would become part of Austria. This happened in 1847, but the Austrian Emperors already used the title in 1836.

The arms are identical to the arms of the Farnese family.


Ragusa

The Duchy of Ragusa (now Dubrovnik, Croatia), has a very complicated history. Created as an independent state in the 7th century it was a protectorate of the Byzantine Emperors. From 1358-1526 the Kings of Hungary acted as protectors. In 1806 the French conquered the area. In between the Turks ruled the territory. In 1814 it became an Austrian possession and was made a Duchy. A little later it was joined with Dalmatia.

The arms were already used by the Republic in medieval times.


Siebenbürgen

The Duchy of Siebenbürgen (English Transsylvania, now in Romania) was conquered in 1688 by Emperor Leopold I and united with Hungary. In 1765 Empress Maria-Theresia made Siebenbürgen a Grand Duchy (previously it was a principality). The Hungarian name was Erdély.

The arms show in the upper half an eagle flanked by a sun and a crescent. The eagle is derived from the old arms of the Duke of Siebenbürgen from 1659. The sun and crescent are derived from the arms of the Székelys people. The lower half shows seven castles, a canting element (Siebenbürgen = seven castles in German).


Silezia, Lower

The Duchy Lower Silezia (German Niederschlesien, now in Poland) was part of Silezia, which became a separate duchy from Poland in 1163. Ever since the territory has been divided in many smaller duchies, counties and principalities. First Silezia was split in Upper and Lower Silezia, which were gradually further divided. The Habsburg dynasty gradually acquired most of Silezia, which eventually was divided among Prussia and Austria. The Austrian Emperors, however held claim to the whole territory.

The golden eagle was first used by Duke Boleslaw (died 1201) and has been used as the arms for the area since, even though the Duchy itself did no longer exist. 


Slavonia

The Kingdom of Slavonia (now part of Croatia) was a title created and used by the Hungarian Kings in the 13th century. The area at the time was a Hungarian possession, which was later heavily disputed. In the 18th century the territory became again part of Austria-Hungary.

The oldest use of arms for Slavonia dates from 12th century coins, issued by King Emerich. The coins showed a marten between two stars. In 1496 King Wladislaw II created the above arms. A marten between the rivers Drava and Sava.


Sonnenberg

The County of Sonnenberg was created in 1463 by Eberhat von Waldburg, but became already in 1474 a possession of the Dukes of Austria. The county is at present in the State of Vorarlberg, Austria.

The arms are canting, showing a sun (Sonne) and a mountain (Berg) and were created in 1463.


Teschen

The Duchy of Teschen (Cieszyn) was created from the County of Upper Silezia and has been part of Austria-Hungary until 1918 when it was divided between Poland and Czechoslovakia. Actually the duchy of was the only part of Silesia in Austrian hands following the loss of Silesia to Prussia in 1742. 


Trient

The Principality of Trient (now Trentino, Italy) was from 1027-1803 an independent state ruled by the Bishops of Trient. In 1803 the state was incorporated into Austria-Hungary. The arms were granted in 1339 to Bishop Nicholas by King Johann of Bohemia, and is identical to the old arms used by the Kings of Bohemia until King Wenzel I. The Kings of Bohemia acted as protectors for the bishops at the time.

The current arms (right) are derived from the historical arms. 


Triest

The Estate and city of Triest (now Trieste, Italy) joined Austria in 1382 as a protection against Venice. The arms were officially granted in 1467 by Emperor Friedrich III after the siege by the Venetians. The arms show in the lower half a spear, symbol of St. Sergius, patron saint of the city on the arms of Austria. The present city uses only the spear in its arms, but in a red field. The upper half shows the Imperial eagle.


Tuscany

The Arch-Duchy of Tuscany (Toscana, now part of Italy) was created in 1569 when Cosimo de'Medici, Duke of Florence, was made Arch Duke of Tuscany by Pope Pius V. In 1737 the territory became a possession of Duke Franz III of Lotharingen, and hence a possession of the Habsburg family. Officially, the territory never was part of Austria-Hungary.

The arms show five pills, a canting element for the Medici family. The blue ball with the fleur-de-lis were granted by the French King Louis XII in 1504. 


Windischen Mark

The Estate of the Windischen Mark (now part of Slovenia) became a possession of the Habsburg dynasty already in 1282. The arms show a typical hat for the area, and are thus considered canting. The arms were probably devised under the reign of Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (around 1350).


Zara

The Duchy of Zara (now Croatia), was created in 1797 when it was qcquired by Austria-Hungary. The territory had a complicated history and belonged to Byzantium, Venice, Hungary and Turkey prior to 1797.

The arms show the H. Chrysogonus, the patron saint of the city of Zara.


Zator

The Duchy of Zator was part of Silezia before the division. It is now part of Poland. In 1494 theterritory was sold to Poland and became part of Austria-Hungary in 1772 at the first Polish division. The eagle is either the old eagle of Poland or the eagle of Silezia, in different colours.

Literature: Ströhl, 1890


Sources:

  • Dual Monarchy emblem - http://www.roc.idv.tw/fotw/flags/ah.html (by Istvan Molnar, 20 March 2001) 
  • Text and emblems: International Civic Heraldry - Austria-Hungary - http://www.ngw.nl/int/oos/ooshong/ooshong.htm
  • Emblems - Wappen aus dem alten Österreich - http://www.peter-diem.at/History/his.htm
  • Text - 1911 Encyclopedia
  • Emblem tapestry - courtesy of Michael Plass

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Created: Wednesday, October 15, 2003;  Last Updated: Tuesday, October 16, 2012
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