Matteo Giulio Bartoli
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Hrvatski & Italiano
(different text)

atteo Giulio Bartoli was born on November 22, 1873 in Albona (Labin), at that time part of Austria-Hungary.

linguist and glottologist

born in Albona
1873

Bartoli obtained his doctorate at the University of Vienna and was heavily influenced there by his teacher Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1861-1936), and in Strasburg by his "teacher and colleague" J. Húbschmann, as well as by certain theories of the Italian philosopher Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) and the German linguist Karl Vossler (1872-1949). He also later studied with Jules L. Gilliéron (1854-1926) in Paris. Dal Gillièron il B. derivò l'inclinazione per le ricerche dialettologiche sul campo: a questo tipo di attività egli si dedicò subito dopo gli studi universitari, svolgendo indagini in località istriane. Frutto di tali indagini sono le sue prime pubblicazioni (scritte parte in tedesco), risalenti al 1900: Due parole sul neolatino indigeno di Dalmazia,' in Rivista dalmatica, 11 (1900), pp. 5-14; Uber eine Studienreise zur Erforschung des Altromanischen Dalmatiens, in Wiener... Anzeiger, XXXV (1899-1900), pp. 159-180; rec. a G. Vidossi, Studi sul dialetto triestino,in Deutsche Literaturzeitung, XXIII(1902), pp. 2151-2153.

L'interesse del giovane Bartoli non si limitava a parlate italo-romanze, o al dalmatico, ma già dall'inizio si allargò ad altri idiorni della penisola balcanica, come attesta un'ampia rassegna di studi rumeni allora apparsa negli Studi di filologia romanza, VIII (1901), pp. 517-628. Già con questi primissimi lavori il B. andava dunque orientando il suo studio verso lingue arealmente contigue e verso l'individuazione delle affinità dovute a contiguità.

Risale al 1903 la prima pubblicazione di un certo impegno: la Grammatische Obersicht úber die italienischen Mundarten,apparsa in appendice (pp. M-215) dell'Altitalienische Chrestomathie (Strasburgo 1903) del romanista P. Savj-Lopez. Dall'anno seguente, il B. fu chiamato a redigere la rassegna "Lingua letteraria" nel Kritischer Jahresbericht úber die Fortschritte der romanischen Philologie del Vollmóller, collaborazione protrattasi fino al 1912. Intanto egli andava maturando un ampio e fondamentale studio sul dalmatico, pubblicato nel 1906 nelle Schriften der Balkankommission dell'Accademia viennese delle scienze (Das Dalmatische. Altromanische Sprachreste von Veglia bis Ragusa und ihre Stellung in der appenninobalkanischen Romania. I: Einleitung und Ethnographie Myriens; II: Glossar und Texte, Grammatik und Lexikon,2 VOR., Wien i 906).

Il Dalmatico

In an important early study, Das Dalmatische (1906; “Dalmatian”), he documented and analyzed the now-extinct Romance Vegliot (Vegliotto) dialect of the Adriatic island of Veglia (now Krk, Croatia. This 2-volume study on the Dalmatian language is the only known complete description of this Romance language of the Adriatic island of Veglia (now Krk, Croatia) which is now extinct. He originally wrote it in Italian and later published a translation to German.

For his project, Bartoli visited the last speaker of any Dalmatian dialect, Tuone Udaina Burbur / Antonio Udina (birthdate unknown) in 1897, at which time he wrote down approximately 2,800 words, stories, and accounts of Udaina's life, which were published in Italian and later published a 2-volume translation to German in 1906 entitled Das Dalmatische.

Bartoli provided much information on the vocabulary, phonology and grammar of the language. However, the Italian language manuscripts were lost, and the work was not retranslated into the Italian until 2001. Also unfortunate is that Udaina was hardly an ideal informant; Vegliot Dalmatian was not his native language, and he had learned it only from listening to his parents' private conversations. Moreover, he had not spoken the language for 20 years at the time he acted as an informant, and he was deaf and toothless as well. Moreover, the study was further shortened when Udaina was killed by a landmine a year later on June 10, 1898.

Bartoli's translated book (translated from the German) is described as follows:

Il Dalmatico di Matteo Giulio Bartoli, a cura di Aldo Duro, 2001 pp. 495, retail price € 49,06. The following text is extracted from the introduction by the highly noted glottologist Aldo Duro:

Resti di un'antica lingua romanza parlata da Veglia a Ragusa e sua collocazione nella Romània appennino-balcanica.

Per dalmatico non si intende, come qualcuno potrebbe forse pensare in un primo momento, una varietà del dialetto veneto parlato sulla costa dalmata e nelle isole litoranee nei secoli che vanno dal XV al XX, da quando cioè i rapporti commerciali e marittimi, ma anche politici, militari e soprattutto culturali con Venezia si fanno sempre più stretti, fino al termine della prima, e soprattutto della seconda guerra mondiale, quando la mutata situazione politica e il pressoché totale esodo della popolazione italiana ivi residente troncano o modificano tali rapporti (che al contrario si rinnovano e si fanno più stretti per coloro che come sede dell'esilio hanno scelto proprio il territorio veneto, largamente inteso).

Nella classificazione delle lingue romanze, si è dato invece il nome di dalmatico alla lingua neolatina formatasi nell'età medievale, attraverso progressive trasformazionil latino penetrato in Dalmazia con le legioni romane prima ancora che all'evo antico facesse seguito l'era cristiana.

Altra denominazione con cui è stato anche indicato dagli studiosi il dalmatico è quella di veglioto (o, toscanamente, vegliotto), in quanto nell'isola quarnerina di Veglia questo idioma si è conservato quasi miracolosamente più a lungo che altrove, tramandato e compreso, anche se non sporadicamente parlato, fin verso la fine del secolo XIX, quando, nel giugno 1898, si spegne con la morte dell'ultimo dei parlanti, Antonio Udina, che fu anche il più ascoltato tra gli informatori che Matteo Giulio Bartoli ebbe modo di interrogare a più riprese nel tempo in cui preparava la sua tesi di laurea proprio sul dialetto veglioto che, scritta in italiano, fu da lui sostenuta nel luglio 1898 all'Università di Vienna con il grande glottologo Meyer-Lübke (avendo come correlatore lo spalatino Adolfo Mussafia).

Per avere più ampie informazioni e obbiettivi giudizi sull'attività di Matteo Bartoli come studioso e docente, è da vedere la bio-bibliografia a lui dedicata nel vol. 6° del Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani.

This body of work on the extinguished neo-Latin speech of Veglia brought brought to Bartoli assurred esteem in the academic world.  In 1907 he was nominated professor extraordinaire of comparative history of classical and neo-Latin languages in Pisa, but soon afterwards that same year he was invited to the Faculty of Letters in Turin where he taught come professore stabile "storia comparata delle lingue classiche e neolatine" (la cattedra assunse successivamente i nomi di "linguistica" e, dal 1939, di "glottologia". He remained in Turin for the rest of his life.

In the 1910s, Bartoli was the linguistics professor of Antonio Gramsci, one of the leading scholars of Italy’s twentieth century. Despite his being a very promising student, probably headed for a brilliant career as an academic, Gramsci dropped out of university to become a political leader and journalist. He was arrested and committed to solitary confinement by the Fascist regime (1926) for his political activities within the Italian Communist Party, which he had co-founded in 1921. While in jail, Gramsci wrote The Prison Notebooks, a heterogeneous work which, among other things, illustrates Gramsci’s interpretation of Marxism. Gramsci died of a stroke on April, 27, 1937 in a hospital in Rome, where he had spent the last two years of his life always under guard by Fascist policemen. In theory, Gramsci died as a free man, since his sentence had expired on April, 21. However, his health conditions made it impossible for him to leave the clinic, and his funerals were held under Fascist police surveillance on April, 28, 1937.

Between 1930 e il 1935, in the then Institute pareggiato di magistero in Turin, took on the commitment of the German language and letters.

As an Italian linguist, meanwhile, Bartoli later advanced his theories about language in Introduzione alla neolinguistica (1925; “Introduction to Neolinguistics”) and Saggi di linguistica spaziale (1945; “Essays on Areal Linguistics”). In his view, there is a direct, causal connection between linguistic expansion and distribution, on the one hand, and linguistic change and its order of occurrence, on the other, thereby emphasizing the geographic spread of linguistic changes and their interpretations in terms of history and culture. Though his chief interest was in Romance languages, he also addressed himself to Proto-Indo-European languages.

Matteo Giulio Bartoli first conceived the Italian Linguistic Atlas (ALI), a project mainly concerned with the diatopic variation, which was finally published in a partial form in the 1990s. It has a long and drawn-out history.

The Italian Linguistic Atlas

All European countries have had for decades their own linguistic atlases - that is, a methodical and systematic collection of maps reproducing, for every single place examined, the corresponding dialectal translations of a concept, a notion or a sentence (set as title to each map) - collected from interviews of informants by one or more interviewers, through inquiries carried out on one or more subjects and based on ad hoc questionnaires.

Only in Italy had such work not yet been completed, even though Italian had long been included in the sprach-und Sachatlas Italiens und der Sudschweiz (AIS) published between 1928 and 1940 by the Swiss linguist Karl Jaberg and Jakob Jud. The Italian Linguistic Atlas (ALI) was first conceived by Matteo Giulio Bartoli during the years before World War I, but its composition was only started in 1924 at Turin University by the "G.I. Ascoli" Friulian Philological Society in Udine, which bravely promoted and supported it. With its huge bulk of ethnolinguistic materials (over 5 million dialectal cards and about 10,000 ethnographic photographs of high documentary value), the now-published Italian Linguistic Atlas claims to be the greatest national achievement in dialectology and one of the greatest among similar works already published or under way in Europe or elsewhere.

Primo Comitato di redazione
The first Editors' Committee, from left: U. Pellis, G. Vidossi, M.G. Bartoli, and E. Carletti.

 

 

The original plan of the work as drawn up by Bartoli involved a very long questionnaire (over 7,000 items), divided into a General Part (including the basic lexicon) and a Special Part (devoted to the lexis of various human activities, such as arts and crafts, fishing, etc.) as well as Demologic Handbook edited by Giuseppe Vidossi about jargons, customs, habits, local beliefs, popular science and literature.

The numerous places to be examined (over 1,000, including the alloglott areas of Albanians, Catalans, Franco-Provencals, Greeks, Provencals, Rumenians, Slavs, Germans and gipsies) were chosen by Bartoli on the basis of a theoretical criterion which would enable one to grasp, at the same time, the archaic and innovative tendencies of Italian vernaculars.

As to the publication of materials, Bartoli's plan included the preparation of 2,000 maps, in 15 in-folio volumes of the same size, scale and characteristics as the Atlas Linguistique de la France (ALF) by Jules-Louis Gilliéron and Edmond Edmont.

Bartoli died on January 23, 1946 in Turin, Italy.

After the deep crisis following World War II it was possible to resume the work only in 1952, when Benvenuto A. Terracini returned to Italy from his exile in Tucuman and took over from Bartoli. So the collection was completed, not without difficulties, in 1964, also thanks to periodical financial contributions offered by the National Research Council. In the same period it was also possible to start the preparatory work for the publication of the Atlas which culminated with the presentation of some trial maps and the publication of the Essay on a Linguistic Atlas of Sardinia (Turin, 1964), edited by B. Terracini and F. Franceschi, based on the materials collected by ALI and containing an ample comment written by Terracini, which was not only the testing ground of the future major Atlas but also its methodological and programmatic manifesto.

The first volume of the Italian Linguistic Atlas was finally published in 1995 by the Polygraphic Institute and the National Mint in Rome and deals with ‘the human body: anatomy, quality and physical defects, and popular arguments, and consists three preliminary charts dealing with 1) the 'official names of the explored localities', 2) the 'dialectal names of the explored localities and inhabitants', and 3) the 'topography of the dialectal replies'.

These were followed by 73 charts (pages 1-73) concerning the anatomy of the human body, 17 charts (pages 74-90) concerning the quality and physical defects and 3 charts (pages 91-93) concerning the popular arguments.

Three additional volumes of the Atlas have since been published:

  • Volume 2 (1996) - dedicated to "The human body: main functions, malaises and common pathological maladies, main deseases" is composed of 103 charts (94-202) of which the first 53 (94-146) deal with the main functions, the following 30 (147-176) malaises and common pathological maladies, the last 26 (177-202) the main deseases."
  • Volume 3 (1997) - dedicated to "clothing and attire" and consists of 95 charts (203-297).
  • Volume 4 (1999) - dedicated to "The home and the external and internal furnishing (the lounge, the bedroom)" consists of 95 charts (298-392).

The «Italian linguistic Atlas», with over 5 million of dialectal entries and with about 10,000 ethnographic pictures of very high documentary value, represent therefore the utmost national dialectological enterprise and absolutely one of the major amongst similar works published or in the course of publication within and outside Europe.

Although this Atlas has been and will undoubtedly continue to be extremely useful for the study of Romance and Italian dialectology, it hardly offers a complete and detailed description of the linguistic situation of Italy, owing to the principles on which it was conceived and the way in which it was carried out. In other words, it does not reflect "all the throbbing vitality of our speechways, well balanced between various historical sedimentations and an age-old, fluctuating tendency towards national unity" (B. Terracini). It is a work in progress with two more volumes underway:

  • Volume 5 - dedicated to "The home and furnishing: the kitchen" consists of 132 Charts (393-524). It is in the process of being printed.

Le quattro norme (the four norms) che hanno reso il Bartoli celebere sono state fissate grazie ai suoi ragionamenti sull' Atlante Linguistico Francese di Gilliéron, e sono le seguenti:

  • Norma dell’Area Isolata

Solitamente nelle aree isolate (e quindi meno esposte al commercio, ed alla comunicazione) si trova una forma linguistica anteriore: ne è clamoroso esempio l'Islanda, che adotta una forma di linguaggio molto simile all'antico norvegese.

Example:

Italian: cena [ʧena] > Sardinian: cena [kena]

Sardinia is an isolated place, and mantiene la pronuncia velare di c + i/e ([ki], [ke]) 

  • Norma delle Aree Laterali

Solitamente nelle aree laterali si conserva una fase più antica rispetto a quella presente nelle aree intermedie.

Example:

Latin: circus (most ancient form) > Spanish°: cerco / Romanian°: cerc
Latin: circulus (most recent form) > Italian: cerchio

°Spain and Romania were aree laterali of the Roman Empire

  • Norma dell’Area Maggiore

Solitamente nell’area maggiore si conserva una fase più antica rispetto a zone più ristrette.

Example:

Latin: et (most ancient form) > French: et / Italiano: e
Latin: sic (most recent form) > Romanian: si

Questa regola vale solo se l'area non è troppo esposta 

  • Norma dell'Area Seriore (cioè, più tarda)

Nelle zone in cui la lingua è arrivata in un secondo momento, tende a conservarsi la fase più antica.

Example:

Latin: édere > Spanish°: (comedere) > comer

In italiano il verbo si è perso a favore del tardo latino manducare (mangiare scompostamente)

Latin: manducare > Italian: mangiare

°In Spain, già area laterale dell'Impero Romano, il latino è stato ovviamente portato dopo rispetto all'Italia, dove ha avuto origine.

Principal works:

  • 1901 - Publicazioni recenti di filologia rumena, Turin, Loescher, 1901, in-80, 112 p. (extrait des Studj di filologia romanza, vol. VIlI.) La plus grande partie de ce volume est consacrée à l'istro-roumain. M. Matteo Bartoli y rend compte en effet du sixième Jahresbericht publié par le Dr Weigand (cf. Romania, XXIX, 623), qui contient l'Istrorumanisches Glossar de M. A. Byhan, et de deux publications sur l'histoire des Roumains d'Istrie: C. de Franceschi, I castelli della Val d'Arsa, et G. Vassilich, Sui Rumeni dell' Istria. Chemin faisant M. B. examine ou cite beaucoup d'autres travaux, et ses notes abondent en renseignements bibliographiques, d'autant plus précieux que la «littérature» de l'istro-roumain est d'accès assez difficile. Pour l'histoire de la colonie roumaine d'Istrie, M. B. présente quelques hypothèses de détail, qui ne prétendent pas à éclaircir la question des origines, et s'en remet sagement, après Meyer-Lûbke et Ascoli, a l'étude linguistique, à celle en particulier des éléments slaves de l'istro-roumain, du soin de fournir une solution. Il s'attache surtout à examiner le glossaire de M. Byhan, et cette partie de son compte rendu est d'une trés grande importance. Sa critique, toujours courtoise, mais précise et minutieuse, aboutit à reprocher à M. Byhan une connaissance de l'italien et du vénitien trop imparfaite pour l'étude d'un idiome sur lequel le vénitien a eu tant d'influence, une bibliographie encore incomplète et une critique des sources parfois trop peu rigoureuse, quelques négligences, et, reproche plus grave, une certaine facilité à citer, surtout pour l'italien et le vénitien, des formes et des sens inexistants. M. B. s'étonne aussi, non sans raison, que M. Byhan ne cite pas, ou ne connaisse pas, un certain nombre de travaux antérieurs, qui, sur quelques points, pouvaient le guider, eu du moins, éclairer le lecteur. L'auteur a joint à sa critique de précieux compléments, qu'on ne pourra se dispenser de consulter en même temps que le glossaire de M. Byhan: indications bibliographiques, critique de sources, rectifications de l'analyse et de la graphie phonétiques, enfin additions et corrections à de nombreux articles du glossaire, tirées de documents restés inconnus â M. Byhan et surtout de matériaux recueillis directement dans la population roumaine de l'Istrie, ce qui leur donne une valeur facile a apprécier. — M. R. [Paul Meyer, Société des amis de la Romania, Gaston Bruno Paulin Paris, Antoine Thomas, Romania recueil trimestriel consacré à l'étude des langues et des littératures romanes, Volume 31. F. Vieweg (Paris, 1902), p. 478-9.]
  • 1903 - "Un po' di sardo." in Archeografo triestino, XXIX, Caprin (Trieste, 1903), pg. 129-151;
  • 1905 - Di una metafonesi nel veneto di Muggia, Halle a.d.S., Verlag von Max Niemezer (1905). Review in Pagine Istriane.
  • 1906 - Il Dalmatico / Das Dalmatische. Altromanisce Sprachreste von Veglia bis Ragusa und ihre Stellung in der Apennino-balkanischen Romania. 2 volumes - vol. 1: Einleitung und Ethnographie Illyriens, vol II: Glossare und Texte, Grammatik und Lexikon; Wien, Alfred Hölder, 1906. Review (PDF)
  • 1907 - è chiamato a Torino alla cattedra di storia comparata delle lingue classiche e neolatine (divenuta poi glottologia)
  • 1908 - "Riflessi slavi di vocali labiali romane e romanze, greche, e germaniche", in Zbornik u slavu Vatroslava Jagića, by Vatroslav Jagić. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung  (Berlin, 1908), p. ?.
  • 1911 - concepisce il disegno dell'Atlante linguistico italiano;
  • 1923 - Nomi e confini delle Venezie, published in Rome, p. 30-60;
  • 1925 - Breviario della neolinguistica, con Giulio Bertoni (available at Mucchi Editore - http://www.mucchieditore.it/v_libri.asp?idli=4378) Introduzione alla neolinguistica (prima parte);
  • Criteri tecnici (seconda parte);
  • 1943 - Lineamenti di linguistica spaziale, con G. Vidossi;
  • 1945 - Alle porte orientali d'Italia. Dialetti e lingue nella Venezia Giulia;
  • 1945 - Saggi di linguistica spaziale (Essay of Spatial Linguistics), Fondo di studi Parini-Chirio (Università di Torino), Rosenberg & Sellier, 1945 - Foreign Language Study - 306 pages - http://www.google.com/search?tbs=bks:1&tbo=p&q=+subject:%22Foreign+Language+Study%22&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0".

Front CoverReviews and other writings:

  • 1901 - "Bulletino Bibliografico, Recensioni, Pubblicazioni Recenti di Filologia Rumena: Sechster Jahresbericht des Instituts für rumünische Sprache su Leipzig, Herausgegeben von dem Leiter des Instituts Prof. Dr. Gustav Weigand." In-8°, b-398, Leipzig, J.A. Barth 1899." in Studj di Filologia Romanza. Pubblicati da Ernesto Monaci, Vol. VIII, Ermanno Loescher e Co. (Roma, 1901), p. 517-628.
  • ? - "Due parole sul neolatino indigeno di Dalmazia (not sul dialetto ormai spento di Veglia)". In Rivista dalmatica II, 2.

See also:

Articles:

Sources:

  • http://www.treccani.it/site/www/catalogo/biblioteca.htm
  • http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/matteo-giulio-bartoli_%28Dizionario-Biografico%29/
  • http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9013542/Matteo-Giulio-Bartoli
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matteo_Giulio_Bartoli
  • http://www.atlantelinguistico.it/progetto/MatteoGiulioBartoli.html & http://www.atlantelinguistico.it/atlante/Introduzione.html
  • http://www.immi.se/intercultural/nr14/fusari.htm
  • http://www.viandante.it/sito24/XIX%20secolo/1878_lt.htm (main text)
  • image - http://arupinum.xoom.it/rov/cro/chrono6.html
  • http://www.friul.net/DizionarioBio/b.html

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