Saint Jerome
Prominent Istrians


De viris illustribus
(On Illustrious Men)

Latin English

Caput primum

Simon Petrus, filius Joannis, provinciae Galileae, e vico Bethsaida, frater Andreae apostoli (Matth. IV, 18), et princeps Apostolorum, post episcopatum Antiochensis Ecclesiae, et praedicationem dispersionis eorum qui de circumcisione crediderant, in Ponto, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, et Bithynia (I Petr. I, 1), secundo Claudii imperatoris anno, ad expugnandum Simonem magum, Romam pergit, ibique viginti quinque annis Cathedram Sacerdotalem tenuit, usque ad ultimum annum Neronis, id est, decimum quartum. A quo et affixus cruci, martyrio coronatus est, capite ad terram verso, et in sublime pedibus elevatis: asserens se indignum qui sic crucifigeretur ut Dominus suus. Scripsit duas Epistolas, quae Catholicae nominantur: quarum secunda a plerisque ejus esse negatur, propter styli cum priore dissonantiam. Sed et Evangelium juxta Marcum, qui auditor ejus et interpres fuit, hujus dicitur. Libri autem, e quibus unus Actorum ejus inscribitur, alius Evangelii, tertius Praedicationis, quartus Apocalypseos, quintus Judicii, inter apocryphas scripturas repudiantur. Sepultus Romae in Vaticano, juxta viam Triumphalem, totius orbis veneratione celebratur.

Chapter 1. Simon Peter

Simon Peter the son of John, from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee, brother of Andrew the apostle, and himself chief of the apostles, after having been bishop of the Church of Antioch and having preached to the Dispersion — the believers in circumcision, in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia — pushed on to Rome in the second year of Claudius to over-throw Simon Magus, and held the sacerdotal chair there for twenty-five years until the last, that is the fourteenth, year of Nero. At his hands he received the crown of martyrdom being nailed to the cross with his head towards the ground and his feet raised on high, asserting that he was unworthy to be crucified in the same manner as his Lord. He wrote two epistles which are called Catholic, the second of which, on account of its difference from the first in style, is considered by many not to be by him. Then too the Gospel according to Mark, who was his disciple and interpreter, is ascribed to him. On the other hand, the books, of which one is entitled his Acts, another his Gospel, a third his Preaching, a fourth his Revelation, a fifth his Judgment are rejected as apocryphal. Buried at Rome in the Vatican near the triumphal way, he is venerated by the whole world.

Caput II

Jacobus, qui appellatur frater Domini (Galat. I, 19), cognomento Justus, ut nonnulli existimant, Joseph ex alia uxore, ut autem mihi videtur, Mariae sororis matris Domini (Joan. XIX, 25), cujus Joannes in libro suo meminit, filius, post passionem Domini statim ab Apostolis Hierosolymorum episcopus ordinatus, unam tantum scripsit Epistolam, quae de septem Catholicis est, quae et ipsa ab alio quodam sub nomine ejus edita asseritur, licet paulatim tempore procedente obtinuerit auctoritatem. Hegesippus vicinus Apostolicorum temporum, in quinto Commentariorum libro de Jacobo narrans, ait: Suscepit Ecclesiam Hierosolymorum post Apostolos frater Domini Jacobus, cognomento Justus. Multi siquidem Jacobi vocabantur. Hic de utero matris sanctus fuit, vinum et siceram non bibit, carnem nullam comedit, nunquam attonsus fuit, nec unctus fuit unguento, nec usus balneo. Huic soli licitum erat ingredi Sancta sanctorum: siquidem vestibus laneis non utebatur, sed lineis, solusque ingrediebatur templum, et fixis genibus pro populo deprecabatur, in tantum, ut camelorum duritiem traxisse ejus genua crederentur. Dicit et alia multa, quae enumerare longum esset. Sed et Josephus in vicesimo libro Antiquitatum refert, et Clemens in septimo ὑποτυπώσεως, mortuo Festo, qui Judaeam regebat, missum esse a Nerone successorem ejus Albinum, qui cum necdum ad provinciam pervenisset, Ananus, inquit, Pontifex adolescens Anani filius, de genere sacerdotali, accepta occasione ἀναρχίας, concilium congregavit, et compellens publice Jacobum, ut Christum Dei Filium denegaret, contradicentem lapidari jussit. Qui cum praecipitatus de pinna templi, confractis cruribus, adhuc semianimis tendens ad coelum manus, diceret: Domine, ignosce eis, quod enim faciunt, nesciunt (Luc. XXIII, 34); fullonis fuste, quo uda vestimenta extorqueri solent, in cerebro percussus interiit. Tradit item Josephus, tantae eum sanctitatis fuisse, et celebritatis in populo, ut propter ejus necem, creditum sit subversam esse Hierosolymam. Hic est de quo Paulus Apostolus scribit ad Galatas: Alium autem Apostolorum vidi neminem, nisi Jacobum fratrem Domini (Galat. I, 19). Et Apostolorum super hoc crebrius Acta testantur (Actor. I, 13; et XXII, 17; et XV, 13). Evangelium quoque quod appellatur secundum Hebraeos, et a me nuper in Graecum Latinumque sermonem translatum est, quo et Origenes saepe utitur, post resurrectionem Salvatoris refert: Dominus autem cum dedisset sindonem servo Sacerdotis, ivit ad Jacobum, et apparuit ei. Juraverat enim Jacobus, se non comesturum panem ab illa hora qua biberat calicem Domini, donec videret eum resurgentem a dormientibus. Rursusque post paululum: Afferte, ait Dominus, mensam et panem. Statimque additur: Tulit panem et benedixit, ac fregit, et dedit Jacobo justo, et dixit ei: Frater mi, comede panem tuum, quia resurrexit Filius hominis a dormientibus. Triginta itaque annos Hierosolymorum [Al. Hierosolymis] rexit Ecclesiam, id est, usque ad septimum Neronis annum, et juxta templum ubi et praecipitatus fuerat, sepultus est. Titulum usque ad obsidionem Titi, et ultimam Hadriani, notissimum habuit. Quidam e nostris in monte Oliveti eum putaverunt conditum, sed falsa eorum opinio est.

Chapter 2. James the Just

James, who is called the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just, the son of Joseph by another wife, as some think, but, as appears to me, the son of Mary sister of the mother of our Lord of whom John makes mention in his book, after our Lord's passion at once ordained by the apostles bishop of Jerusalem, wrote a single epistle, which is reckoned among the seven Catholic Epistles and even this is claimed by some to have been published by some one else under his name, and gradually, as time went on, to have gained authority. Hegesippus who lived near the apostolic age, in the fifth book of his Commentaries, writing of James. says "After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem. Many indeed are called James. This one was holy from his mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor strong drink, ate no flesh, never shaved or anointed himself with ointment or bathed. He alone had the privilege of entering the Holy of Holies, since indeed he did not use woolen vestments but linen and went alone into the temple and prayed in behalf of the people, insomuch that his knees were reputed to have acquired the hardness of camels' knees." He says also many other things, too numerous to mention. Josephus also in the 20th book of his Antiquities, and Clement in the 7th of his Outlines mention that on the death of Fetus who reigned over Judea, Albinus was sent by Nero as his successor. Before he had reached his province, Ananias the high priest, the youthful son of Ananus of the priestly class taking advantage of the state of anarchy, assembled a council and publicly tried to force James to deny that Christ is the son of God. When he refused Ananius ordered him to be stoned. Cast down from a pinnacle of the temple, his legs broken, but still half alive, raising his hands to heaven he said, "Lord forgive them for they know not what they do." Then struck on the head by the club of a fuller such a club as fullers are accustomed to wring out garments with — he died. This same Josephus records the tradition that this James was of so great sanctity and reputation among the people that the downfall of Jerusalem was believed to be on account of his death. He it is of whom the apostle Paul writes to the Galatians that "No one else of the apostles did I see except James the brother of the Lord, " and shortly after the event the Acts of the apostles bear witness to the matter. The Gospel also which is called the Gospel according to the Hebrews, and which I have recently translated into Greek and Latin and which also Origenoften makes use of, after the account of the resurrection of the Saviour says, "but the Lord, after he had given his grave clothes to the servant of the priest, appeared to James(for James had. sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour in which he drank the cup of the Lord until he should see him rising again from among those that sleep)" and again, a little later, it says" ' Bring a table and bread, ' said the Lord." And immediately it is added, "He brought bread and blessed and brake and gave to James the Just and said to him, ' my brother eat thy bread, for the son of man is risen from among those that sleep.'" And so he ruled the Church of Jerusalem thirty years, that is until the seventh year of Nero, and was buried near the temple from which he had been cast down. His tombstone with its inscription was well known until the siege of Titus and the end of Hadrian's reign. Some of our writers think he was buried in Mount Olivet, but they are mistaken.

Caput III

Matthaeus, qui et Lovi, ex publicano apostolus (Matth. IX, 9; Marc. II, 14; Luc. V, 27), primus in Judaea propter eos qui ex circumcisione crediderant, Evangelium Christi Hebraicis litteris verbisque composuit: quod quis postea in Graecum transtulerit, non satis certum est. Porro ipsum Hebraicum habetur usque hodie in Caesariensi bibliotheca, quam Pamphilus martyr studiosissime confecit. Mihi quoque a Nazaraeis, qui in Beroea urbe Syriae hoc volumine utuntur, describendi facultas fuit. In quo animadvertendum, quod ubicumque Evangelista, sive ex persona sua, sive ex persona Domini Salvatoris, veteris Scripturae testimoniis abutitur, non sequatur Septuaginta translatorum auctoritatem, sed Hebraicam, e quibus illa duo sunt: Ex Aegypto vocavi filium meum; et: Quoniam Nazaraeus vocabitur.

Chapter 3. Matthew

Matthew, also called Levi, apostle and aforetimes publican, composed a gospel of Christ at first published in Judea in Hebrewfor the sake of those of the circumcision who believed, but this was afterwards translated into Greek though by what author is uncertain. The Hebrew itself has been preserved until the present day in the library. at Caesarea which Pamphilus so diligently gathered. I have also had the opportunity of having the volume described to me bythe Nazarenesof Beroea, a city of Syria, who use it. In this it is to be noted that wherever the Evangelist, whether on his own account or in the person of our Lord the Saviour quotes the testimony of the Old Testament he does not follow the authority of the translators of the Septuagint but the Hebrew. Wherefore these two forms exist "Out of Egypt have I called my son, " and "for he shall be called a Nazarene."

Caput IV

Judas frater Jacobi parvam, quae de septem Catholicis est, Epistolam reliquit. Et quia de libro Enoch, qui apocryphus est, in ea assumit testimonium, a plerisque rejicitur, tamen auctoritatem vetustate jam et usu meruit, et inter sanctas Scripturas computatur.

Chapter 4. Jude

Jude, the brother of James, left a short epistle which is reckoned among the seven Catholic epistles, and because in ithe quotes from the apocryphal book of Enoch it is rejected by many. Nevertheless by age and use it has gained authority and is reckoned among the Holy Scriptures.

Caput V

Paulus apostolus, qui ante Saulus (Actor. VII, 58), extra numerum duodecim Apostolorum, de tribu Benjamin et oppido Judaeae Giscalis fuit, quo a Romanis capto, cum parentibus suis Tarsum Ciliciae commigravit (Act. XIII, 12), a quibus ob studia Legis missus Hierosolymam, a Gamaliele viro doctissimo, cujus Lucas meminit, eruditus est. Cum autem interfuisset neci martyris Stephani, et acceptis a pontifice templi epistolis, ad persequendos eos, qui Christo crediderant, Damascum pergeret, revelatione compulsus ad fidem, quae in Actibus Apostolorum scribitur, in vas electionis de persecutore translatus est. Cumque primum ad praedicationem ejus Sergius Paulus proconsul Cypri credidisset, ab eo quod eum Christi fidei subegerat, sortitus est nomen Paulus, et juncto sibi Barnaba, multis urbibus peragratis, revertensque Hierosolymam, a Petro, Jacobo et Joanne Gentium Apostolus ordinatur. Et quia in Actibus Apostolorum plenissime de ejus conversatione scriptum est, hoc tantum dicam, quod post passionem Domini vicesimo quinto anno, id est, secundo Neronis, eo tempore, quo Festus procurator Judaeae successit Felici, Romam vinctus mittitur, et biennium in libera manens custodia, adversus Judaeos de adventu Christi quotidie disputavit. Sciendum autem in prima satisfactione, necdum Neronis imperio roborato, nec in tanta erumpente scelera, quanta de eo narrant historiae, Paulum a Nerone dimissum, ut Evangelium Christi in Occidentis quoque partibus praedicaretur, sicut ipse scribit in secunda Epistola ad Timotheum, eo tempore quo et passus est, de vinculis dictans Epistolam: In prima mea satisfactione nemo mihi affuit, sed omnes me dereliquerunt: non eis imputetur. Dominus autem mihi affuit, et confortavit me, ut per me praedicatio compleretur, et audirent omnes gentes, et liberatus sum de ore leonis (I Tim. IV, 16). Manifestissime leonem propter crudelitatem Neronem significans. Et in sequentibus: Liberatus sum de ore leonis. Et statim: Liberabit me Dominus ab omni opere malo, et salvabit me in regnum suum coeleste, quod scilicet praesens sibi sentiret imminere martyrium. Nam et in eadem Epistola praemiserat: Ego enim jam immolor, et tempus resolutionis meae instat (I Tim. IV, 6). Hic ergo quarto decimo Neronis anno, eodem die quo Petrus Romae, pro Christo capite truncatur, sepultusque est in via Ostiensi, anno post passionem Domini tricesimo septimo. Scripsit autem novem ad septem Ecclesias Epistolas, ad Romanos unam, ad Corinthios duas, ad Galatas unam, ad Ephesios unam, ad Philippenses unam, ad Colossenses unam, ad Thessalonicenses duas, praeterea ad discipulos suos, Timotheo duas, Tito unam, Philemoni unam. Epistola autem quae fertur ad Hebraeos, non ejus creditur, propter styli sermonisque dissonantiam, sed vel Barnabae, juxta Tertullianum, vel Lucae Evangelistae, juxta quosdam, vel Clementis Romanae postea Ecclesiae Episcopi, quem aiunt ipsi adjunctum sententias Pauli proprio ordinasse et ornasse sermone. Vel certe quia Paulus scribebat ad Hebraeos, et propter invidiam sui apud eos nominis, titulum in principio salutationis amputaverit. Scripserat ut Hebraeus Hebraice, id est, suo eloquio disertissime, ut ea quae eloquenter scripta fuerant in Hebraeo, eloquentius verterentur [Ms. vertisse] in Graecum, et hanc causam esse, quod a caeteris Pauli Epistolis discrepare videatur. Legunt quidam et ad Laodicenses, sed ab omnibus exploditur.

 Chapter 5. Paul

Paul, formerly called Saul, an apostle outside the number of the twelve apostles, was of the tribe of Benjamin and the town of Giscalisin Judea. When this was taken by the Romans he removed with his parents to Tarsus in Cilicia. Sent by them to Jerusalem to study law he was educated by Gamaliel, a most learned man whom Luke mentions. But after he had been present at the death of the martyr Stephen and had received letters from the high priest of the temple for the persecution of those who believed in Christ, he proceeded to Damascus, where constrained to faith by a revelation, as it is written in the Acts of the apostles, he was transformed from a persecutor into an elect vessel. As Sergius Paulus Proconsul of Cyprus was the first to believe on his preaching, he took his name from him because he had subdued him to faith in Christ, and having been joined by Barnabas, after traversing many cities, he returned to Jerusalem and was ordained apostle to the Gentiles by Peter, James and John. And because a full account of his life is given in the Acts of the Apostles, I only say this, that the twenty-fifth year after our Lord's passion, that is the second of Nero, at the time when Fetus Procurator of Judea succeeded Felix, he was sent bound to Rome, and remaining for two years in free custody, disputed daily with the Jews concerning the advent of Christ. It ought to be said that at the first defence, the power of Nero having not yet been confirmed, nor his wickedness broken forth to such a degree as the histories relate concerning him, Paul was dismissed by Nero, that the gospel of Christ might be preached also in the West. As he himself writes in the second epistle to Timothy, at the time when he was about to be put to death dictating his epistle as he did while in chains; "At my first defence no one took my part, but all forsook me: may it not be laid to their account. But the Lord stood byme and strengthened me; that through me the message might be fully proclaimed and that all the Gentiles might hear, and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion" — clearly indicating Nero as lion on account of his cruelty. And directly following he says "The Lord delivered me from the month of the lion" and again shortly "The Lord delivered mefrom every evil work and saved me unto his heavenly kingdom, "for indeed he felt within himself that his martyrdom was near at hand, for in the same epistle he announced "for I am already being offered and the time of my departure is at hand."He then, in the fourteenth year of Nero on the same day with Peter, was beheaded at Rome for Christ's sake and was buried in the Ostian way, the twenty-seventh year after our Lord's passion. He wrote nine epistles to seven churches: To the Romans one, To the Corinthians two, To the Galatians one, To the Ephesians one, To the Philippians one, To the Colossians one, To the Thessalonians two; and besides these to his disciples, To Timothy two, To Titus one, To Philemon one. The epistle which is called the Epistle to the Hebrews is not considered his, on account of its difference from the others in style and language, but it is reckoned, either according to Tertullian to be the work of Barnabas, or according to others, to be by Luke the Evangelist or Clement afterwards bishop of the Church at Rome, who, they say, arranged and adorned the ideas of Paul in his own language, though to be sure, since Paul was writing to Hebrews and was indisrepute among them he may have omittedhis name from the salvation on this account.He being a Hebrew wrote Hebrew, that ishis own tongue and most fluently while the things which were eloquently written in Hebrew were more eloquently turned into Greek, and this is the reason why it seems to differ from other epistles of Paul. Some read one also tothe Laodiceans but it is rejected by everyone.

Caput VI

Barnabas Cyprius (Act. IV, 36), qui et Joseph Levites, cum Paulo Gentium apostolus ordinatus (Act. XIII, 2; Gal. II, 9), unam ad aedificationem Ecclesiae pertinentem Epistolam composuit, quae inter apocryphas scripturas legitur. Hic postea propter Joannem discipulum, qui et Marcus vocabatur (Act. XV, 37), separatus a Paulo, nihilominus Evangelicae praedicationis injunctum sibi opus exercuit.

Chapter 6. Barnabas

Barnabas the Cyprian, also called Joseph the Levite, ordained apostle to the Gentiles with Paul, wrote one Epistle, valuable for the edification of the Church, which is reckoned among the apocryphal writings. He afterwards separated from Paul on account of John, a disciple also called Mark, none the less exercised the work laid upon him of preaching the Gospel.

Caput VII

Lucas medicus Antiochensis, ut ejus scripta indicant, Graeci sermonis non ignarus fuit, sectator Apostoli Pauli, et omnis peregrinationis ejus comes, scripsit Evangelium, de quo idem Paulus: Misimus, inquit, cum illo fratrem, cujus laus est in Evangelio per omnes Ecclesias (II Cor. VIII, 18); et ad Colossenses: Salutat vos Lucas medicus charissimus (Coloss. IV, 14); et ad Timotheum: Lucas est mecum solus (II Tim. IV, 11). Aliud quoque edidit volumen egregium, quod titulo Apostolicarum πράξεων praenotatur, cujus historia usque ad biennium Romae commorantis Pauli pervenit, id est, usque ad quartum Neronis annum (Act. II, 8, 30). Ex quo intelligimus, in eadem urbe librum esse compositum. Igitur περιόδους [Ms. περιοχὰς] Pauli, et Theclae, et totam baptizati Leonis fabulam, inter apocryphas scripturas computamus. Quale enim est, ut individuus comes Apostoli, inter caeteras ejus res hoc solum ignoraverit? Sed et Tertullianus vicinus eorum temporum, refert presbyterum quemdam in Asia σπουδαστὴν apostoli Pauli, convictum apud Joannem, quod auctor esset libri, et confessum se hoc Pauli amore fecisse, loco excidisse. Quidam suspicantur, quotiescumque in Epistolissuis Paulus dicit, juxta Evangelium meum, de Lucae significare volumine, et Lucam non solum ab apostolo Paulo didicisse Evangelium, qui cum Domino in carne non fuerat, sed et a caeteris Apostolis. Quod ipse quoque in principio sui voluminis declarat, dicens: Sicut ut tradiderunt nobis, qui a principio ipsi viderunt, et ministri fuerunt sermonis. Igitur Evangelium sicut audierat, scripsit. Acta vero Apostolorum sicut viderat, composuit. Sepultus est Constantinopoli, ad quam urbem vicesimo Constantii anno, ossa ejus cum reliquiis Andreae apostoli translata sunt.

Chapter 7. Luke

Luke, a physician of Antioch as his writings indicate, was not unskilled in the Greek language. An adherent of the apostle Paul, and companion of all his journeying, he wrote a Gospel, concerning which the same Paul says, "We send with him a brother whose praise in the gospel is among all the churches" and to the Colossians "Luke the beloved physician salutes you, "and to Timothy "Luke only is with me."He also wrote another excellent volume to which he prefixed the title Acts of the Apostles, a history which extends to the second year of Paul's sojourn at Rome, that is to the fourthyear of Nero, from which we learn that the book was composed in that same city. Therefore the Acts of Paul and Thecla(10) and all the fable about the lion baptized by him we reckon among the apocryphal writings, (11) for how is it possible that the inseparable companion of the apostle in his other affairs, alone should have been ignorant of this thing. Moreover Tertullian who lived near those times, mentions a certain presbyter in Asia, an adherent of the apostle Paul, (12) who was convicted by John of having been the author of the book, and who, confessing that he did this for love of Paul, resigned his office of presbyter. Some suppose that whenever Paul in his epistle says "according to my gospel" he means the book of Luke and that Luke not only was taught the gospel history by the apostle Paul who was not with the Lord in the flesh, but also by other apostles. This he too at the beginning of his work declares, saying "Even as they delivered unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word." So he wrote the gospel as he had heard it, but composed the Acts of the apostles as he himself had seen. He was buried at Constantinople to which city, in the twentieth year of Constantius, his bones together with the remains of Andrew the apostle were transferred.

Caput VIII

Marcus discipulus et interpres Petri, juxta quod Petrum referentem audierat, rogatus Romae a fratribus, breve scripsit Evangelium. Quod cum Petrus audisset, probavit, et Ecclesiis legendum sua auctoritate edidit, sicut Clemens in sexto ὑποτυπώσεων libro scribit et Papias Hierapolitanus episcopus. Meminit hujus Marci, et Petrus in Epistola prima, sub nomine Babylonis figuraliter Romam significans: Salutat vos quae in Babylone est coelecta, et Marcus filius meus (I Petr. V, 13). Assumpto itaque Evangelio quod ipse confecerat, perrexit Aegyptum, et primus [Ms. primum] Alexandriae Christum annuntians, constituit Ecclesiam, tanta doctrina [Al. doctrinae] et vitae continentia, ut omnes sectatores Christi ad exemplum sui cogeret. Denique Philo disertissimus Judaeorum, videns Alexandriae primam Ecclesiam adhuc judaizantem, quasi in laudem gentis suae librum super eorum conversatione scripsit (Act. II, 44). Et quomodo Lucas narrat, Hierosolymae credentes omnia habuisse communia: sic et ille quod Alexandriae sub Marco fieri doctore cernebat, memoriae tradidit. Mortuus est autem octavo Neronis anno, et sepultus Alexandriae, succedente sibi Anniano.

Chapter 8. Mark

Mark the disciple and interpreter of Peter wrote a short gospel at the request of the brethren at Rome embodying what he had heard Peter tell. When Peter had heard this, he approved it and published it to the churches to be read by his authority as Clemens in the sixth book of his Hypotyposes and Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, record. Peter also mentions this Mark in his first epistle, figuratively indicating Rome under the name of Babylon: "She who is in Babylon elect together with you saluteth you and so doth Mark my son." So, taking the gospel which he himself composed, he went to Egypt and first preaching Christ at Alexandria he formed a church so admirable in doctrine and continence of living that he constrained all followers of Christ to his example. Philo most learned of the Jews seeing the first church at Alexandria still Jewish in a degree, wrote a bookon their manner of life as something creditable to his nation telling how, as Luke says, the believers had all things in commonat Jerusalem, so he recorded that he sawwas done at Alexandria, under the learned Mark. He died in the eighth year of Nero and was buried at Alexandria, Annianus succeeding him.

Caput IX

Joannes Apostolus, quem Jesus amavit plurimum (Jo. XIII, 23, et XIX, 26, et XX, 2, et XXI, 7), filius Zebedaei, frater Jacobi apostoli (Matth. IV, 21, et X, 2; Marc. X, 35; Luc. V, 10), quem Herodes post passionem Domini docellavit (Act. XII, 2 seqq.), novissimus omnium scripsit Evangelium, rogatus ab Asiae episcopis, adversus Cerinthum, aliosque haereticos, et maxime tunc Ebionitarum dogma consurgens, qui asserunt Christum ante Mariam non fuisse. Unde et compulsus est divinam ejus nativitatem edicere. Sed et aliam causam hujus scripturae ferunt, quod cum legisset Matthaei, Marci et Lucae volumina, probaverit quidem textum historiae, et vera eos dixisse firmaverit, sed unius tantum anni, in quo et passus est, post carcerem Joannis [Ms. tacet Joannis], historiam texuisse. Praetermisso itaque anno, cujus acta a tribus exposita fuerant, superioris temporis antequam Joannes clauderetur in carcerem, gesta narravit: sicut manifestum esse poterit his qui diligenter quatuor Evangeliorum volumina legerint. Quae res etiam διαφωνίαν (dissonantiam), quae videtur Joannis esse cum caeteris, tollit. Scripsit autem et unam Epistolam, cujus exordium est: Quod fuit ab initio, quod audivimus, et vidimus oculis nostris, quod perspeximus, et manus nostrae contrectaverunt de verbo vitae, quae ab universis Ecclesiasticis et eruditis viris probatur. Reliquae autem duae, quarum principium est: Senior Electae dominae et natis ejus, et sequentis: Senior Caio charissimo, quem ego diligo in veritate, Joannis presbyteri asseruntur, cujus et hodie alterum sepulcrum apud Ephesum ostenditur, etsi nonnulli putant duas memorias ejusdem Joannis Evangelistae esse, super qua re cum per ordinem ad Papiam auditorem ejus ventum fuerit, disseremus. Quarto decimo igitur anno, secundum post Neronem persecutionem movente Domitiano, in Patmos insulam relegatus, scripsit Apocalypsim, quam interpretatur Justinus Martyr et Irenaeus. Interfecto autem Domitiano, et actis ejus ob nimiam crudelitatem a senatu rescissis, sub Nerva principe redit Ephesum, ibique usque ad Trajanum principem perseverans, totas Asiae fundavit rexitque Ecclesias, et confectus senio, sexagesimo octavo post passionem Domini anno mortuus, juxta eamdem urbem sepultus est.

Chapter 9. John

John, the apostle whom Jesus most loved, the son of Zebedee and brother of James, the apostle whom Herod, after our Lord's passion, beheaded, most recently of all the evangelists wrote a Gospel, at the request of the bishops of Asia, against Cerinthus and other heretics and especially against the then growing dogma of the Ebionites, who assert that Christ did not exist before Mary. On this account he was compelled to maintain His divine nativity. But there is said to be yet another reason for this work, in that when he had read Matthew, Mark, and Luke, he approved indeed the substance of the history and declared that the things they said were true, but that they had given the history of only one year, the one, that is, which follows the imprisonment of John and in which he was put to death. So passing by this year the events of which had been set forth by these, he related the events of the earlier period before John was shut up in prison, so that it might be manifest to those who should diligently read the volumes of the four Evangelists. This also takes away the discrepancy which there seems to be between John and the others. He wrote also one Epistle which begins as follows "That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes and our hands handled concerning the word of life" which is esteemed of by all men who are interested in the church or in learning. The other two of which the first is "The eider to the elect lady and her children" and the other "The elder unto Gaiusthe beloved whom I love in truth, " are said to be the work of John the presbyter to the memory of whom another sepulchre is shown at Ephesus to the present day, though some think that there are two memorials of this same John the evangelist. We shall treat of this matter in its turn when we come to Papias his disciple. In the fourteenth year then after Nero Domitian having raised a second persecution he was banished to the island of Patmos, and wrote the Apocalypse, on which Justin Martyr and Irenaeus afterwards wrote commentaries. But Domitian having been put to death and his acts, on account of his excessive cruelty, having been annulled by the senate, he returned to Ephesus under Pertinaxand continuing there until the tithe of the emperor Trajan, founded and built churches throughout all Asia, and, worn out by old age, died in the sixty-eighth year after our Lord's passion and was buried near the same city.

Caput X

Herman, cujus Apostolus Paulus ad Romanos scribens meminit: Salutate Asyncritum, Phlegonta, Herman, Patroban, Hermen, et qui cum eis fratres sunt (Rom. XVI, 14), asserunt auctorem esse libri, qui appellatur Pastor, et apud quasdam Graeciae Ecclesias jam publice legitur. Revera utilis liber, multique de eo Scriptorum veterum usurpavere testimonia. Sed apud Latinos pene ignotus est.

Chapter 10. Hermas

Hermas, whom the apostle Paul mentions in writing to the Romans "Salute Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas and the brethren that are with them" is reputed to be the author of the book which is called Pastor and which is also read publicly in some churches of Greece. It is in fact a useful book and many of the ancient writers quote from it as authority, but among the Latins it is almost unknown.

Caput XI

Philo Judaeus, natione Alexandrinus, de genere sacerdotum, idcirco a nobis inter scriptores ecclesiasticos ponitur, quia librum de prima Marci evangelistae apud Alexandriam scribens Ecclesia, in nostrorum laude versatus est, non solum eos ibi, sed in multis quoque provinciis esse memorans, et habitacula eorum dicens monasteria. Ex quo apparet talem primum Christo credentium fuisse Ecclesiam, quales nunc monachi esse nituntur [Ms. imitantur] et cupiunt, ut nihil cujusquam proprium sit, nullus inter eos, dives, nullus pauper. Patrimonia egentibus dividuntur [Al. dividunt], orationi vacatur [Al. vacant], et Psalmis, doctrinae quoque et continentiae, quales et Lucas refert (Act. II, 44, et IV, 32), primum Hierosolymae fuisse credentes. Aiunt hunc sub Caio Caligula Romae periclitatum, quo legatus gentis suae missus fuerat. Cum secunda vice venisset ad Claudium, in eadem urbe locutum esse cum apostolo Petro, ejusque habuisse amicitias, et ob hanc causam, etiam Marci, discipuli Petri, apud Alexandriam sectatores ornasse laudibus suis. Exstant hujus praeclara et innumerabilia opera, in quinque libros Moysi, de Confusione linguarum liber unus, de Natura et Inventione liber unus, de His quae sensu precamur et detestamur liber unus, de Eruditione liber unus, de Haerede divinarum rerum liber unus, de Divisione aequalium et contrariorum liber, de Tribus virtutibus liber unus, Quare quorumdam in Scripturis mutata sunt [Mss. sint] nomina liber unus, de Pactis libri duo, de Vita sapientis liber unus, de Gigantibus liber unus, Quod somnia mittantur a Deo libri quinque, Quaestionum et solutionum in Exodo libri quinque, de Tabernaculo et Decalogo libri quatuor, necnon de Victimis et Repromissionibus, sive Maledictis, de Providentia, de Judaeis, de Conversatione vitae, de Alexandro, et Quod propriam rationem muta animalia habeant, et Quod omnis insipiens servus sit, et de Vita nostrorum liber unus, de quo supra diximus, id est, de Apostolicis viris, quem et inscripsit περὶ Βίου θεωρητικοῦ ἱκετῶν, quod videlicet coelestia contemplentur, et semper Deum orent. Et sub aliis indicibus, de Agricultura duo, de Ebrietate duo. Sunt et alia ejus monumenta ingenii, quae in nostras manus non pervenerunt. De hoc vulgo apud Graecos dicitur, ἢ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει, ἢ Φίλων πλατωνίζει: id est, aut Plato Philonem sequitur, aut Platonem Philo: tanta est similitudo sensuum et eloquii.

Chapter 11. Philo the Jew

Philo the Jew, an Alexandrian of the priestly class, is placed by us among the ecclesiastical writers on the ground that, writing a book concerning the first church of Mark the evangelist at Alexandria, he writes to our praise, declaring not only that they were there, but also that they were in many provinces and calling their habitations monasteries. From thisit appears that the church of those that believed in Christ at first, was such as now the monks desire to imitate, that is, such that nothing is the peculiar property of any one of them, none of them rich, none poor, that patrimonies are divided among the needy, that they have leisure for prayer and psalms, for doctrine also and ascetic practice, that they were in fact as Lake declares believers were at first at Jerusalem. They say that under Caius(10) Caligula he ventured to Rome, whither he had been sent as legate of his nation, and that when a second time he had come to Claudius, he spoke in the same city with the apostle Peter and enjoyed his friendship, and for this reason also adorned the adherents of Mark, Peter's disciple at Alexandria, with his praises. There are distinguished and innumerable works by this man: On the five books of Moses, one book Concerning the confusion of tongues, one book On nature and invention, one book On the things which our senses desire and we detest, one book On learning, one book On the heir of divine things, one book On the division of equals and contraries, one book On the three virtues, one book On why in Scripture the names of many persons are changed, two books On covenants, one book On the life of a wiseman, one book Concerning giants, five books That dreams are sent by God, five books of Questions and answers on Exodus, four books On the tabernacle and the Decalogue, as well as books On victims and promises or curses, On Providence, On the Jews, On the manner of one's life, On Alexander, and That dumb beasts have right reason, and That every fool should be a slave, and On the lives of the Christians, of which we spoke above, that is, lives of apostolic men, which also he entitled, On those who practice the divine life, because in truth they contemplate divine things and ever pray to God, also trader other categories, two On agriculture, two On drunkenness. There are other monuments of his genius which have not come to our hands. Concerning him there is a proverb among the Greeks "Either Plato philonized, or Philo platonized, " that is, either Plato followed Philo, or Philo, Plato, so great is the similarity of ideas and language.

Caput XII

Lucius Annaeus Seneca Cordubensis, Sotionis Stoici discipulus, et patruus Lucani poetae, continentissimae vitae fuit, quem non ponerem in catalogo Sanctorum, nisi me illae Epistolae provocarent, quae leguntur a plurimis, Pauli ad Senecam, et Senecae ad Paulum. In quibus cum esset Neronis magister, et illius temporis potentissimus, optare se dicit, ejus esse loci apud suos, cujus sit Paulus apud Christianos. Hic ante biennium quam Petrus et Paulus coronarentur martyrio, a Nerone interfectus est.

Chapter 12. Lucius Annus Seneca

Lucius Annus Seneca of Cordova disciple of the Stoic Sotionand uncle of Lucan the Poet, was a man of most continent life, whom I should not place in the category of saints were it not that those Epistles of Paul to Seneca and Seneca a to Paul, which are read by many, provoke me. In these, written when he was tutor of Nero and the most powerful man of that time, he says that he would like to hold such a place among his countrymen as Paul held among Christians. He was put to death by Nero two years before Peter and Paul were crowned with martyrdom.

Caput XIII

Josephus Matthiae filius, ex Hierosolymis sacerdos, a Vespasiano captus, cum Tito filio ejus relictus est. Hic Romam veniens, septem libros Judaicae captivitatis Imperatoribus patri filioque obtulit, qui et bibliothecae publicae traditi sunt, et ob ingenii gloriam, statuam quoque meruit Romae. Scripsit autem et alios viginti Antiquitatum libros, ab exordio mundi, usque ad decimum quartum annum Domitiani Caesaris, et duos Ἀρχαιότητος, adversum Appionem grammaticum Alexandrinum, qui sub Caligula legatus missus ex parte Gentilium, contra Philonem etiam librum, vituperationem gentis Judaicae continentem, scripserat. Alius quoque liber ejus, qui inscribitur περὶ Αὐτοκράτορος λογισμοῦ, valde elegans habetur, in quo et Machabaeorum sunt digesta martyria. Hic in decimo octavo Antiquitatum libro, manifestissime confitetur, propter magnitudinem signorum, Christum a Pharisaeis interfectum, et Joannem Baptistam vere prophetam fuisse, et propter interfectionem Jacobi apostoli, dirutam Hierosolymam. Scripsit autem de Domino in hunc modum: Eodem tempore fuit Jesus vir sapiens, si tamen virum oportet eum dicere. Erat enim mirabilium patrator operum, et doctor eorum, qui libenter vera suscipiunt: plurimos quoque tam de Judaeis quam de gentibus sui habuit sectatores, et credebatur esse Christus. Cumque invidia nostrorum Principum, cruci eum Pilatus addixisset, nihilominus qui primum dilexerant, perseveraverunt. Apparuit enim eis tertia die vivens. Multa et haec alia mirabilia carminibus Prophetarum de eo vaticinantibus, et usque hodie Christianorum gens ab hoc sortita vocabulum, non defecit.

Chapter 13. Josephus

Josephus, the son of Matthias, priest of Jerusalem, taken prisoner by Vespasian and his son Titus, was banished. Coming to Rome he presented to the emperors, father and son, seven books On the captivity of the Jews, which were deposited in the public library and, on account of his genius, was found worthy of a statue at Rome. He wrote also twenty books of Antiquities, from the beginning of the world until the fourteenth year of Domitian Csar, and two of Antiquities against Appion, the grammarian of Alexandria who, under Caligula, sent as legate on the part of the Gentiles against Philo, wrote also a book containing a vituperation of the Jewish nation. Another book of his entitled, On all ruling wisdom, in which the martyr deaths of the Maccabeans are related is highly esteemed. In the eighth book of his Antiquities he most openly acknowledges that Christ was slain by the Pharisees on account of the greatness of his miracles, that John the Baptist was truly a prophet, and that Jerusalem was destroyed because of the murder of James the apostle. He wrote also concerning the Lord after this fashion: "In this same time was Jesus, a wise man, if indeed it be lawful to call him man. For he was a worker of wonderful miracles, and a teacher of those who freely receive the truth. He had very many adherents also, both of the Jews and of the Gentiles, and was believed to be Christ, and when through the envy of our chief men Pilate had crucified him, nevertheless those who had loved him at first continued to the end, for he appeared to them the third day alive. Many things, both these and other wonderful things are in the songs of the prophets who prophesied concerning him and the sect of Christians, so named from Him, exists to the present day."

Caput XIV

Justus Tiberiensis, de provincia Galilaea, conatus est et ipse Judaicarum rerum historiam texere, et quosdam Commentariolos de Scripturis componere: sed hunc Josephus (In Just. Vita) arguit mendacii. Constat autem illum eo tempore scripsisse, quo et Josephus.

Chapter 14. Justus

Justus of Tiberias of the province Galilee, also attempted to write a History ofJewish affairs and certain brief Commentaries on the Scriptures but Josephus convicts him of falsehood. It is known that he wrote at the same time as Josephus himself.

Caput XV

Clemens, de quo Apostolus Paulus ad Philippenses scribens, ait, Cum Clemente et caeteris cooperatoribus meis, quorum nomina scripta sunt in libro vitae (Philip. IV, 3), quartus post Petrum Romae episcopus: siquidem secundus Linus fuit, tertius Anacletus, tametsi plerique Latinorum, secundum post Petrum Apostolum putent fuisse Clementem. Scripsit ex persona Romanae Ecclesiae ad Ecclesiam Corinthiorum valde utilem Epistolam, quae et in nonnullis locis publice legitur, quae mihi videtur characteri Epistolae, quae sub Pauli nomine ad Hebraeos fertur, convenire. Sed et multis de eadem Epistola, non solum sensibus, sed juxta verborum quoque ordinem abutitur. Omnino grandis in utraque similitudo est. Fertur et secunda ejus nomine Epistola, quae a veteribus reprobatur. Et Disputatio Petri et Appionis longo sermone conscripta, quam Eusebius in tertio historiae Ecclesiasticae volumine coarguit. Obiit tertio Trajani anno, et nominis ejus memoriam usque hodie Romae exstructa Ecclesia custodit.

Chapter 15. Clement

Clement, of whom the apostle Paulwriting to the Philippians says "With Clement and others of my fellow-workers whose names are written in the book of life, "the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter, if indeed the second was Linus and the third Anacletus, although most of the Latins think that Clement was second after the apostle.He wrote, on the part of the church of Rome, an especially valuable Letter to the church of the Corinthians, which in some places is publicly read, and which seems to me to agree in style with the epistle to the Hebrews which passes under the name of Paul but it differs from this same epistle, not only in many of its ideas, but also in respect of the order of words, and its likeness in either respect is not very great. There is also a second Epistle under his name which is rejected by earlier writers, and a Disputation between Peter and Appion written out at length, which Eusebius in the third book of his Church history rejects. He died in the third year of Trajan and a church built at Rome preserves the memory of his name unto this day.

Caput XVI

Ignatius Antiochenae Ecclesiae tertius post Petrum apostolum episcopus, persecutionem commovente Trajano, damnatus ad bestias, Romam vinctus mittitur. Cumque navigans Smyrnam venisset, ubi Polycarpus, auditor Joannis, episcopus erat, scripsit unam Epistolam ad Ephesios, alteram ad Magnesianos, tertiam ad Trallenses, quartam ad Romanos, et inde egrediens scripsit ad Philadelpheos, et ad Smyrnaeos; et proprie ad Polycarpum, commendans illi Antiochensem Ecclesiam, in qua et de Evangelio quod nuper a me translatum est, super persona Christi ponit testimonium dicens: Ego vero et post resurrectionem in carne eum vidi, et credo quia sit. Et quando venit ad Petrum, et ad eos qui eum Petro erant, dixit eis: Ecce, palpate me, et videte, quia non sum daemonium incorporale. Et statim tetigerunt eum, et crediderunt. Dignum autem videtur, quia tanti viri fecimus mentionem, et de epistola ejus, quam ad Romanos scribit [Al. scripsit], pauca ponere. De Syria usque ad Romam pugno ad bestias, in mari et in terra, nocte dieque ligatus cum decem leopardis, hoc est, militibus, qui me custodiunt: quibus et cum benefeceris, pejores fiunt. Iniquitas autem eorum, mea doctrina est, sed non idcirco justificatus sum. Utinam fruar bestiis, quae mihi sunt praeparatae, quas et oro mihi veloces esse ad interitum, et alliciam eas ad comedendum me, ne sicut aliorum Martyrum, non audeant corpus meum attingere. Quod si venire noluerint, ego vim faciam, ego me ingeram, ut devorer. Ignoscite mihi, filioli: quid mihi prosit, ego scio. Nunc incipio Christi esse discipulus, nihil de his quae videntur desiderans, ut Jesum Christum inveniam. Ignis, crux, bestiae, confractio ossium, membrorum divisio, et totius corporis contritio, et tota tormenta diaboli, in me veniant, tantum ut Christo fruar.

Cumque jam damnatus esset ad bestias, ardore patiendi, cum rugientes audiret leones, ait: Frumentum Christi sum, dentibus bestiarum molar, ut panis mundus inveniar. Passus est anno undecimo Trajani. Reliquiae corporis ejus Antiochiae jacent extra portam Daphniticam in coemeterio.

Chapter 16. Ignatius of Antioch

Ignatius, third bishop of the church of Antioch after Peter the apostle, condemned to the wild beasts during the persecution of Trajan, was sent bound to Rome, and when he had come on his voyage as far as Smyrna, where Polycarp the pupil of John was bishop, he wrote one epistle To the Ephesians, another To the Magnesians a third To the Trallians a fourth To the Romans, and going thence, he wrote To the Philadelphians and To the Smyrneans and especially To Polycarp, commending to him the church at Antioch. In this lasthe bore witness to the Gospel which I have recently translated, in respect of the person of Christ saying, "I indeed saw him in the flesh after the resurrection and I believe that he is, " and when he came to Peter and those who were with Peter, he said to them "Behold ! touch me and see me bow that I am not an incorporeal spirit" and straightway they touched him and believed. Moreover it seems worth while inasmuch as we have made mention of such a man and of the Epistle which he wrote to the Romans, to give a few "quotations": "From Syria even unto Rome I give me my children, I know what is expedient for me. Now do I begin to be a disciple, and desire none of the things visible that I may attain unto Jesus Christ. Let fire and cross and attacks of wild beasts, let wrenching of bones, cutting apart of limbs, crushing of the whole body, torturesof the devil,  — let all these come upon me if only I may attain unto the joy which is in Christ."

When he had been condemned to the wild beasts and with zeal for martyrdom heard the lions roaring, he said "I am the grain of Christ. I am ground by the teeth of the wild beasts that I may be found the bread of the world." He was put to death the eleventh year of Trajan and the remains of his body lie in Antioch outside the Daphnitic gate in the cemetery.

Caput XVII

Polycarpus, Joannis apostoli discipulus, et ab eo Smyrnae episcopus ordinatus, totius Asiae princeps fuit. Quippe qui nonnullos Apostolorum, et eorum qui viderant Dominum, magistros habuerit, et viderit. Hic propter quasdam super die Paschae quaestiones, sub imperatore Antonino Pio, Ecclesiam in Urbe regente Aniceto, Romam venit, ubi plurimos credentium, Marcionis et Valentini persuasione deceptos, reduxit ad fidem. Cumque ei fortuito obviam fuis et Marcion, et diceret: Cognosce nos: Respondit: Cognosco primogenitum diaboli. Postea vero, regnante M. Antonino, et L. Aurelio Commodo, quarta post Neronem persecutione, Smyrnae, sedente Proconsule, et universo populo in amphitheatro adversus eum personante, igni traditus est. Scripsit ad Philippenses valde utilem Epistolam, quae usque hodie in Asiae conventu legitur.

Chapter 17. Polycarp

Polycarp, disciple of the apostle John and by him ordained bishop of Smyrna was chief of all Asia, where he saw and had as teachers some of the apostles and of those who had seen the Lord. He, on account of certain questions concerning the day of the Passover, went to Rome in the time of the emperor Antoninus Pins while Anicetus ruled the church in that city. There he led back to the faith many of the believers who had been deceived through the persuasion of Marcion and Valentinus, and when. Marcion met him by chance and said "Do you know us" he replied, "I know the firstborn of the devil." Afterwards during the reign of Marcus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus in the fourth persecution after Nero, in the presence of the proconsul holding court at Smyrna and all the people crying out against him in the Amphitheater, he was burned. He wrote a very valuable Epistle to the Philippians which is read to the present day in the meetings in Asia.

Caput XVIII

Papias, Joannis auditor Hierapolitanus in Asia episcopus, quinque tantum scripsit volumina, quae praenotavit, Explanatio sermonum Domini. In quibus cum se in praefatione asserat, non varias opiniones sequi, sed Apostolos habere auctores, ait: Considerabam, quid Andreas, quid Petrus dixissent, quid Philippus, quid Thomas, quid Jacobus, quid Joannes, quid Matthaeus, vel alius quilibet discipulorum Domini: quid etiam Aristion, et Senior Joannes, discipuli Domini loquebantur. Non enim tantum mihi libri ad legendum prosunt, quantum viva vox, usque hodie in suis auctoribus personans. Ex quo apparet in [Al. ex] ipso catalogo nominum, alium esse Joannem, qui inter Apostolos ponitur, et alium Seniorem Joannem, quem post Aristionem enumerat. Hoc autem diximus, propter superiorem opinionem, quam a plerisque retulimus traditam, duas posteriores Epistolas Joannis, non Apostoli esse, sed Presbyteri.

Hic dicitur mille annorum Judaicam edidisse δευτέρωσιν, quem secuti sunt Irenaeus, et Apollinarius, et caeteri qui post resurrectionem aiunt in carne cum sanctis Dominum regnaturum. Tertullianus quoque in libro de Spe fidelium, et Victorinus Petabionensis, et Lactantius hac opinione ducuntur.

Chapter 18. Papias

Papias, the pupil of John, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia, wrote only five volumes, which he entitled Exposition of the words of our Lord, in which, when he had asserted in his preface that he did not follow various opinions but had the apostles for authority, he said "I considered what Andrew and Peter said, what Philip, what Thomas, what James, what John, what Matthew or any one else among the disciples of our Lord, what also Aristion and the elder John, disciples of the Lord had said, not so much that I have their books to read, as that their living voice is heard until the present day in the authors themselves." It appears through this catalogue of names that the John who is placed among the disciples is not the same as the eider John whom he places after Aristion in his enumeration. This we say moreover because of the opinion mentioned above, where we record that it is declared by many that the last two epistles of John are the work not of the apostle but of the presbyter.

He is said to have published a Second coming of Our Lord or Millennium. Irenaeus and Apollinaris and others who say that after the resurrection the Lord will reign in the flesh with the saints, follow him. Tertullian also in his work On the hope of the faithful, Victorinus of Petau and Lac-tantius follow this view.

Caput XIX

Quadratus Apostolorum discipulus, Publio Athenarum episcopo, ob Christi fidem martyrio coronato, in locum ejus substituitur, et Ecclesiam grandi terrore dispersam, fide et industria sua congregat. Cumque Hadrianus Athenis exegisset hiemem, invisens Eleusina, et omnibus pene Graeciae sacris initiatus dedisset occasionem bis, qui Christianos oderant, absque praecepto Imperatoris vexare credentes; porrexit ei librum pro religione nostra compositum, valde utilem, plenumque rationis et fidei, et Apostolica doctrina dignum, in quo et antiquitatem suae aetatis ostendens, ait, plurimos a se visos qui sub Domino variis in Judaea oppressi calamitatibus, sanati fuerant, et qui a mortuis resurrexerant.

Chapter 19. Quadratus

Quadratus, disciple of the apostles, after Publius bishop of Athens had been crowned with martyrdom on account of his faith in Christ, was substituted in his place, and by his faith and industry gathered the church scattered by reason of its great fear. And when Hadrian passed the winter at Athens to witness the Eleusinian mysteries and was initiated into almost all the sacred mysteries of Greece, those who hated the Christians took opportunity without instructions from the Emperor to harass the believers. At this time he presented to Hadrian a work composed in behalf of our religion, indispensable, full of sound argument and faith and worthy of the apostolic teaching. In which, illustrating the antiquity of his period, he says that he has seen many who, oppressed by various ills, were healed by the Lord in Judea as well as some who had been raised from the dead.

Caput XX

Aristides Atheniensis philosophus eloquentissimus, et sub pristino habitu discipulus Christi, volumen nostri dogmatis rationem continens, eodem tempore quo et Quadratus, Hadriano principi dedit, id est, Apologeticum pro Christianis, quod usque hodie perseverans, apud philologos ingenii ejus indicium est.

Chapter 20. Aristides

Aristides, a most eloquent Athenian philosopher, and a disciple of Christ while yet retaining his philosopher's garb, presented a work to Hadrian at the same time that Quadratus presented his. The work contained a systematic statement of our doctrine, that is, an Apology for the Christians, which is still extant and is regarded by philologians as a monument to his genius.

Caput XXI

Agrippa, cognomento Castor, vir valde doctus, adversum viginti quatuor Basilidis haeretici volumina, quae in Evangelium confecerat, fortissime disseruit, prodens ejus universa mysteria, et prophetas enumerans, Barcaban et Barcob, et ad terrorem audientium alia quaedam barbara nomina: et Deum maximum ejus Abraxas, qui quasi annum continens, si juxta Graecorum numerum supputetur. Moratus est autem Basilides, a quo Gnostici, in Alexandria temporibus Hadriani, qua tempestate et Cochebas dux Judaicae factionis, Christianos variis suppliciis enecavit.

Chapter 21. Agrippa

Agrippa, surnamed Castor, a man of great learning, wrote a strong refutation of the twenty-four volumes which Basilides the heretic had written against the Gospel, disclosing all his mysteries and enumerating the prophets Barcabbas and Barchoband all the other barbarous names which terrify the hearers, and his most high God Abraxas. whose name was supposed to contain the year according to the reckoningof the Greeks. Basilides died at Alexandria in the reign of Hadrian, and from him the Gnostic sects arose. In this tempestuous time also, Cochebas leader of the Jewish faction put Christians to death with various tortures.

Caput XXII

Hegesippus vicinus Apostolicorum temporum, et omnes a passione Domini usque ad suam aetatem Ecclesiasticorum actuum texens historias, multaque ad utilitatem legentium pertinentia hinc inde congregans, quinque libros composuit, sermone simplici, ut quorum vitam sectabatur, dicendi quoque exprimeret characterem. Asserit se venisse sub Aniceto Romam, qui decimus post Petrum episcopus fuit, et perseverasse usque ad Eleutherum ejusdem urbis episcopum, qui Aniceti quondam diaconus fuerat. Praeterea adversum idola disputans, ex quo primum errore crevissent, subtexit historiam, ex qua ostendit, qua floruerit aetate. Ait enim: Tumulos mortuis templaque fecerunt, sicut usque hodie videmus: e quibus est et Antinous servus Hadriani Caesaris, cui et gymnicus agon exercetur apud Antinoum civitatem, quam ex ejus nomine condidit, et statuit prophetas in templo. Antinoum autem in deliciis habuisse Caesar Hadrianus scribitur.

Chapter 22. Hegesippus

Hegesippus, who lived at a period not far from the Apostolic age, writing a History of all ecclesiastical events from the passion of our Lord, down to his own period, and gathering many things useful to the reader, composed five volumes in simple style, trying to represent the style of speaking of those whose lives he treated. He says that he went to Rome in the time of Anicetus, the tenth bishop after Peter, and continued there till the time of Eleutherius, bishop of the same city, who had been formerly deacon under Anicetus. Moreover, arguing against idols, he wrote a history, showing from what error they had first arisen, and this work indicates in what age he flourished.He says, "They built monuments and temples to their dead as we see up to the present day, such as the one to Antinous, servant to the Emperor Hadrian, in whose honour also games were celebrated, and a city founded bearing his name, and a temple with priests established." The Emperor Hadrian is said to have been enamoured of Antinous.

Caput XXIII

Justinus philosophus, habitu quoque philosophorum incedens, de Neapoli urbe Palaestinae, patre Prisco Bacchio pro religione Christi plurimum laboravit: in tantum, ut Antonino quoque Pio, et filiis ejus, et Senatui librum (Apologia longior) contra Gentes scriptum daret, ignominiamque Crucis non erubesceret: et alium librum (Altera brevior) successoribus ejusdem Antonini, M. Antonino Vero, et L. Aurelio Commodo. Exstat ejus et aliud volumen (Oratio ad Graecos) contra Gentes, ubi de daemonum quoque natura disputat: et quartum adversus Gentes, cui titulum praenotavit ἔλεγχος: sed et alius de Monarchia Dei, et alius liber, quem praenotavit Psalten, et alius de anima. Dialogus contra Judaeos, quem habuit adversus Tryphonem principem Judaeorum: sed et contra Marcionem insignia volumina, quorum Irenaeus quoque in quarto adversus haereses libro meminit; et alius liber contra omnes haereses, cujus facit mentionem in Apologetico, quem dedit Antonino Pio. Hic cum in urbe Roma haberet διατριβάς, et Crescentem Cynicum, qui multa adversum Christianos blasphemabat, redarguere gulosum, et mortis timidum, luxuriaeque et libidinum sectatorem, ad extremum studio ejus et insidiis accusatus, quod Christianus esset, pro Christo sanguinem fudit.

Chapter 23. Justin

Justin, a philosopher, and wearing the garb of philosopher, a citizen of Neapolis, a city of Palestine, and the son of Priscus Bacchius, laboured strenuously in behalf of the religion of Christ, insomuch that he delivered to Antoninus Pius and his sons and the senate, a work written Against the nations, and did not shun the ignominy of the cross. He addressed another book also to the successors of this Antoninus, Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Com-modus. Another volume of his Against the nations, is also extant, where he discusses the nature of demons, and a fourth against the nations which he entitled, Refutation and yet another On the sovereignty of God, and another book which be entitled, Psaltes, and another On the Soul, the Dialogue against the Jews, which he held against Trypho, the leader of the Jews, and also notable volumes Against Marcion, which Irenaeus also mentions in the fourth bookAgainst heresies, also another book Against all heresies which he mentions in the Apology which is addressed to Antoninus Pius. He, when be had held diatribas in the city of Rome, and had convicted Crescens the cynic, who said many blasphemous things against the Christians, of gluttony and fear of death, and bad proved him devoted to luxury and lusts, at last, accused of being a Christian, through the efforts and wiles of Crescens, he shed his blood for Christ.

Caput XXIV

Melito Asianus, Sardensis episcopus, librum imperatori M. Antonino Vero, qui Frontonis oratoris discipulus fuit, pro Christiano dogmate dedit. Scripsit quoque et alia, de quibus ista sunt, quae subjecimus: De Pascha libros duos, de Vita Prophetarum librum unum, de Ecclesia librum unum, de Die Dominica librum unum, de Sensibus librum unum, de Fide librum unum, de Plasmate librum unum, de Anima et Corpore librum unum, de Baptismate librum unum, de Veritate librum unum, de Generatione Christi librum unum, de Prophetia sua librum unum, de Philoxenia librum unum, et alium librum qui Clavis inscribitur; de diabolo librum unum, de Apocalypsi Joannis librum unum, περὶ Ἐνσωμάτου Θεοῦ librum unum, et Ἐκλογῶν libros sex. Hujus elegans et declamatorium ingenium Tertullianus in septem libris, quos scripsit adversus Ecclesiam pro Montano, cavillatur, dicens eum a plerisque nostrorum prophetam putari.

Chapter 24. Melito of Asia

Melito of Asia, bishop of Sardis, addressed a book to the emperor Marcus Antoninus Verus, a disciple of Fronto the orator, in behalf of the Christian doctrine. He wrote other things also, among which are the following: On the passover, two books, one book On the lives of the prophets, one book On the church, one book On the Lord's day, one book On faith, one book On the psalms one On the senses, one On the soul and body, one On baptism, one On truth. one On the generation of Christ, On His prophecyone On hospitality and another which is called the Key — one On the devil, one On the Apocalypse of John, one On the corporeality of God, and six books of Eclogues. Of his fine oratorical genius, Tertullian, in the seven books which he wrote against the church on behalf of Montanus, satirically says that he was considered a prophet by many of us.

Caput XXV

Theophilus sextus Antiochensis Ecclesiae episcopus, sub imperatore M. Antonino Vero librum contra Marcionem composuit, qui usque hodie exstat. Feruntur ejus et ad Autolycum tria volumina, et contra haeresim Hermogenis liber unus: et alii breves elegantesque tractatus ad aedificationem Ecclesiae pertinentes. Legi sub nomine ejus in Evangelium et in Proverbia Salomonis Commentarios, qui mihi cum superiorum voluminum elegantia et phrasi non videntur congruere.

Chapter 25. Theophilus

Theophilus, sixth bishop of the church of Antioch, in the reign of the emperor Marcus Antoninus Verus composed a book Against Marcion, which is still extant, also three volumes To Autolycus and one Against the heresy of Hermogenes and other short and elegant treatises, well fitted for the edification of the church. I have read, under his name, commentaries On the Gospel and On the proverbs of Solomon which do not appear to me to correspond in style and language with the elegance and expressiveness of the above works.

Caput XXVI

Apollinaris Asiae Hierapolitanus episcopus, sub imperatore M. Antonino Vero floruit, cui et insigne volumen pro fide Christianorum dedit. Exstant ejus et alii quinque adversum gentes libri, et de veritate duo, adversum Cataphrygas tunc primum exortos cum Prisca et Maximilla insanis vatibus, incipiente Montano.

Chapter 26. Apollinaris

Apollinaris, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia, flourished in the reign of Marcus Antoninus Verus, to whom he addressed a notable volume in behalf of the faith of the Christians. There are extant also five other books of his Against the Nations, two On truth and Against the Cataphrygians written at the time when Montanus was making a beginning with Prisca and Maximilla.

Caput XXVII

Dionysius Corinthiorum Ecclesiae episcopus, tantae eloquentiae et industriae fuit, ut non solum suae civitatis et provinciae populos, sed et aliarum urbium et provinciarum episcopos epistolis erudiret. Ex quibus est una ad Lacedaemonios, alia ad Athenienses, tertia ad Nicomedienses, quarta ad Cretenses, quinta ad Ecclesiam Amastrianam, et ad reliquas Ponti Ecclesias, sexta ad Cnossianos, et ad Pinytum ejusdem urbis episcopum, septima ad Romanos, quam scripsit ad Soterem episcopum eorum, octava ad Chrysophoram, sanctam feminam. Claruit sub impp. M. Antonino Vero, et L. Aurelio Commodo.

Chapter 27. Dionysius

Dionysius, bishop of the church of Corinth, was of so great eloquence and industry that he taught not only the people of his own city and province but also those of other provinces and cities by his letters. Of these one is To the Lacedaemonians, another To the Athenians, a third To the Nicomedians, a fourth To the Cretans, a fifth To the church at Amastrina and to the other churches of Pontus, a sixth To the Gnosians and to Pinytus bishop of the same city, a seventh To the Romans, addressed to Sorer their bishop, an eighth To Chrysophora a holy woman. He flourished in the reign of Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus.

Caput XXVIII

Pinytus Cretensis, Cnossiae urbis episcopus, scripsit ad Dionysium Corinthiorum episcopum valde elegantem epistolam: in qua docet, non semper lacte populos nutriendos, ne quasi parvuli ab ultimo occupentur die; sed et solido vesci debere cibo, ut in spiritalem proficiant senectutem. Et hic sub M. Antonino Vero, et L. Aurelio Commodo floruit.

Chapter 28. Pinytus of Crete

Pinytus of Crete, bishop of the city of Gnosus, wrote to Dionysius bishop of the Corinthians, an exceedingly elegant letter in which he teaches that the people are not to be forever fed on milk, lest by chance they be overtaken by the last day while yet infants, but that they ought to be fed also on solid food, that they may go on to a spiritual old age. He flourished under Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus.

Caput XXIX

Tatianus, qui primum Oratoriam docens, non parvam sibi ex arte Rhetorica gloriam comparaverat, Justini martyris sectator fuit, florens in Ecclesia, quamdiu ab ejus latere non discessit. Postea vero inflatus eloquentiae tumore, novam condidit haeresim quae Εγκρατιτῶν dicitur, quam postea Severus auxit, a quo ejusdem partis haeretici Severiani usque hodie appellantur. Porro Tatianus infinita scripsit volumina, e quibus unus contra Gentes florentissimus exstat liber, qui inter omnia opera ejus fertur insignis. Et hic sub imperatore M. Antonino Vero, et L. Aurelio Commodo floruit.

Chapter 29. Tatian

Tatian, who, while teaching oratory, won not a little glory in the rhetorical art, was a follower of Justin Martyr and was distinguished so long as he did not leave his master's side. But afterwards, inflatedby a swelling of eloquence, he rounded a new heresy which is called that of the Encratites, the heresy which Severus afterwards augmented in such wise that heretics of this party are called Severians to the present day. Tatian wrote besides innumerable volumes, one of which, a most successful book Against the nations, is extant, and this is considered the most significant of all his works. He flourished in the reign of Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus.

Caput XXIX

Tatianus, qui primum Oratoriam docens, non parvam sibi ex arte Rhetorica gloriam comparaverat, Justini martyris sectator fuit, florens in Ecclesia, quamdiu ab ejus latere non discessit. Postea vero inflatus eloquentiae tumore, novam condidit haeresim quae Εγκρατιτῶν dicitur, quam postea Severus auxit, a quo ejusdem partis haeretici Severiani usque hodie appellantur. Porro Tatianus infinita scripsit volumina, e quibus unus contra Gentes florentissimus exstat liber, qui inter omnia opera ejus fertur insignis. Et hic sub imperatore M. Antonino Vero, et L. Aurelio Commodo floruit.

Chapter 30. Philip of Crete

Philip bishop of Crete, that is of the city of Gortina, whom Dionysius mentions in the epistle which he wrote to the church of the same city, published a remarkable book Against Marcion and flourished in the time of Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus.

Caput XXXI

Musanus non ignobilis inter eos, qui de ecclesiastico dogmate scripserunt, sub imperatore M. Antonino Vero confecit librum ad quosdam fratres, qui de Ecclesia ad Encratitarum haeresim declinaverant.

Chapter 31. Musanus

Musanus, not inconsiderable among those who have written on ecclesiastical doctrine, in the reign of Marcus Antoninus Verus wrote a book to certain brethren who had turned aside from the church to the heresy of the Encratites.

Caput XXXII

Modestus et ipse sub imperatore M. Antonino, et L. Aurelio Commodo, adversum Marcionem scripsit librum, qui usque hodie perseverat. Feruntur sub nomine ejus et alia syntagmata, sed ab eruditis quasi ψευδόγραφα repudiantur.

Chapter 32. Modestus

Modestus, also in the reign of Marcus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus wrote a book Against Marcion which is still extant. Some other compositions pass under his name but are regarded by scholars as spurious.

Caput XXXIII

Bardesanes in Mesopotamia clarus habitus est, qui primum Valentini sectator, deinde confutator, novam haeresim condidit. Ardens ejus a Syris praedicatur ingenium, et in disputatione vehemens. Scripsit infinita adversum omnes pene haereticos, qui aetate ejus pullulaverant. In quibus clarissimus ille et fortissimus liber, quem M. Antonino de Fato tradidit: et multa alia super persecutione volumina, quae sectatores ejus de Syra lingua verterunt in Graecam. Si autem tanta vis est et fulgor in interpretatione, quantam putamus in sermone proprio?

Chapter 33. Bardesanes of Mesopotamia

Bardesanesof Mesopotamia is reckoned among the distinguished men. He was at first a follower of Valentinus and afterwards his opponent and himself founded a new heresy. He has the reputation among the Syrians of having been a brilliant genius and vehement in argument. He wrote a multitude of works against almost all heresies which had come into existence in his time. Among these a most remarkable and strong work is the one which he addressed to Marcus Antoninus On fate, and many other volumes On persecution which his followers translated from the Syriac language into Greek. If indeed so much force and brilliancy appears in the translation, how great it must have been in the original.

Caput XXXIV

Victor, tertius decimus Romanae urbis episcopus, super quaestione Paschae, et alia quaedam scribens opuscula, rexit Ecclesiam sub Severo principe annis decem.

Chapter 34. Victor

Victor, thirteenth bishop of Rome, wrote, On the Paschal Controversy and some other small works. He ruled the church for ten years in the reign of the Emperor Severus.

Caput XXXV

Irenaeus, Pothini episcopi, qui Lugdunensem in Gallia regebat Ecclesiam, presbyter, a martyribus ejusdem loci, ob quasdam Ecclesiae quaestiones legatus Romam missus, honorificas super nomine suo ad Eleutherum episcopum perfert litteras. Postea jam Pothino prope nonagenario, ob Christum martyrio coronato, in locum ejus substituitur. Constat autem Polycarpi, cujus supra fecimus mentionem, sacerdotis et martyris, hunc fuisse discipulum. Scripsit quinque adversus haereses libros, et contra gentes volumen breve, et de disciplina aliud, et ad Martianum fratrem de Apostolica praedicatione, et librum variorum tractatuum, et ad Blastum de Schismate, et ad Florinum de Monarchia, sive quod Deus non sit conditor malorum, et de Ogdoade egregium commentarium, in cujus fine significans se Apostolicorum temporum vicinum fuisse, sic subscripsit: Adjuro te, qui transcribis librum istum, per Dominum Jesum Christum, et per gloriosum ejus adventum, quo judicaturus est vivos et mortuos, ut conferas, postquam transcripseris, et emendes illum ad exemplar, unde scripsisti, diligentissime: hanc quoque obtestationem similiter transferas, ut invenisti in exemplari. Feruntur ejus et aliae ad Victorem episcopum Romanum de quaestione Paschae epistolae: in quibus commonet eum, non facile debere unitatem collegii scindere. Siquidem Victor multos Asiae et Orientis episcopos, qui decima quarta luna cum Judaeis Pascha celebrabant, damnandos crediderat. In qua sententia hi, qui discrepabant ab illis, Victori non dederunt manus. Floruit maxime sub Commodo principe, qui M. Antonino Vero in imperium successerat.

Chapter 35. Irenaeus

Irenaeus, a presbyter trader Pothinus the bishop who ruled the church of Lyons in Gaul, being sent to Rome as legate by the martyrs of Ibis place, on account of certain ecclesiastical questions, presented to Bishop Eleutherius certain letters under his own name which are worthy of honour. Afterwards when Pothinus, nearly ninety years of age, received the crown of martyrdom for Christ, he was put in his place. It is certain too that he was a disciple of Polycarp, the priest and martyr, whom we mentioned above. He wrote five books Against heresies and a short volume, Against the nations and another On discipline, a letter to Marcianus his brother On apostolical preaching, a book of Various treatises; also to Blastus, On schism, to Florinus On monarchy or That God is not the author of evil, also an excellent Commentary on the Ogdoad at the end of which indicating that he was near the apostolic period he wrote "I adjure thee whosoever shall transcribe this book, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by his glorious advent at which He shall judge the quick and the dead, that you diligently compare, after you have transcribed, and amend it according to the copy from which you have transcribed it and also that you shall similarly transcribe this adjuration as you find it in your pattern." Other works of his are in circulation to wit: to Victor the Roman bishop On the Paschal controversy in which he warns him not lightly to break the unity of the fraternity, if indeed Victor believed that the many bishops of Asia and the East, who with the Jews celebrated the passover, on the fourteenth day of the new moon, were to be condemned. But even those who differed from them did not support Victor in his opinion. He flourished chiefly in the reign of the Emperor Commodus, who succeeded Marcus Antoninus Verus in power.

Caput XXXVI

Pantaenus, Stoicae sectae philosophus, juxta quamdam veterem in Alexandria consuetudinem, ubi a Marco evangelista semper Ecclesiastici fuere Doctores, tantae prudentiae et eruditionis tam in Scripturis divinis, quam in saeculari litteratura fuit, ut in Indiam quoque rogatus ab illius gentis legatis, a Demetrio Alexandriae episcopo, mitteretur. Ubi reperit, Bartholomaeum de duodecim Apostolis, adventum Domini nostri Jesu Christi juxta Matthaei Evangelium praedicasse, quod Hebraicis litteris scriptum, revertens Alexandriam secum detulit. Hujus multi quidem in sanctam Scripturam exstant commentarii: sed magis viva voce Ecclesiis profuit. Docuitque sub Severo principe, et Antonino, cognomento Caracalla.

Chapter 36. Pantaenus

Pantaenus, a philosopher of the stoic school, according to some old Alexandrian custom, where, from the time ofMark the evangelist the ecclesiastics were always doctors, was of so great prudence and erudition both in scripture and secular literature that, on the request of the legates of that nation, he was sent to India by Demetrius bishop of Alexandria, where he found that Bartholomew, one of the twelve apostles, had preached the advent of the Lord Jesus according to the gospel of Matthew, and on his return to Alexandria he brought this with him written in Hebrew characters. Many of his commentaries on Holy Scripture are indeed extant, but his living voice was of still greater benefit to the churches. He taught in the reigns of the emperor Severus and Antoninus surnamed Caracalla.

Caput XXXVII

Rhodon, genere Asianus, a Tatiano, de quo supra diximus, Romae in Scripturis eruditus, edidit plurima: praecipuumque adversus Marcionem opus, in quo refert, quomodo ipsi quoque inter se Marcionitae discrepent; et Apellem senem alium haereticum a se quondam fuisse conventum, et risui habitum, eo quod Deum, quem coleret, ignorare se diceret. Meminit in eodem libro, quem scripsit ad Callistionem, Tatiani se Romae fuisse auditorem. Sed et in Hexaemeron elegantes tractatus composuit, et adversum Phrygas insigne opus; temporibusque Commodi et Severi floruit.

Chapter 37. Rhodo

Rhodo, a native of Asia, instructed in the Scriptures at Rome by Tatian whom we mentioned above, published many things especially a work Against Marcion in which he tells how the Marcionites differ from one another as well as from the church and says that the aged Apelles, another heretic, was once engaged in a discussion with him, and that he, Rhodo, held Apelles up to ridicule because he declared that he did not know the God whom he worshipped. He mentioned in the same book, which he wrote to Callistion, that he had been a pupil of Tatian at Rome. He also composed elegant treatises On the six days of creation and a notable work against the Phrygians. He flourished in the reigns of Commodus and Severus.

Caput XXXVIII

Clemens, Alexandrinae Ecclesiae Presbyter, Pantaeni, de quo supra retulimus, auditor, post ejus mortem Alexandriae ecclesiasticam scholam tenuit, et κατηχήσεων magister fuit. Feruntur ejus insignia volumina, plenaque eruditionis et eloquentiae, tam de Scripturis divinis, quam de saecularis litteraturae instrumento. E quibus illa sunt, στρωματεῖς, libri octo; Ὑποτυπώσεων libri octo; adversus Gentes, liber unus; Paedagogi libri tres, de Pascha liber unus, de jejunio disceptatio, et alius qui inscribitur Quisnam dives ille sit, qui salvetur; de obtrectatione liber unus; de Canonibus ecclesiasticis, et adversum eos, qui Judaeorum sequuntur errorem, liber unus, quem proprie Alexandro, Hierosolymorum episcopo, προσεφώνησε. Meminit autem in Stromatibus suis, voluminis Tatiani adversus Gentes, de quo supra diximus, et Casiani cujusdam χρονογραφίας, quod opusculum invenire non potui. Necnon et de Judaeis Aristobulum quemdam et Demetrium et Eupolemum scriptores adversus Gentes refert, qui in similitudinem Josephi ἀρχαιογονίαν Moysi et Judaicae gentis asseverant. Exstat Alexandri Hierosolymorum episcopi, qui cum Narcisso postea rexit Ecclesiam, epistola super ordinatione Asclepiadis confessoris ad Antiochenses, congratulantis eis, in qua ponit in fine: Haec vobis, domini ac fratres, scripta transmisi per Clementem beatum presbyterum, virum illustrem et probatum, quem vos quoque scitis, et nunc plenius recognoscetis, qui cum huc venisset juxta providentiam et visitationem Dei, confirmavit et auxit Domini Ecclesiam. Constat, Origenem hujus fuisse discipulum. Floruit autem Severi et Antonini filii ejus temporibus.

Chapter 38. Clemens

Clemens, presbyter of the Alexandrian church, and a pupil of the Pantaenus mentioned above, led the theological school at Alexandria after the death of his master and was teacher of the Catechetes. He is the author of notable volumes, full of eloquence and learning, both in sacred Scriptureand in secular literature; among these are the Stromata, eight books, Hypotyposes eight books, Against the nations one book, On pedagogythree books, On the Passover, Disquisition on fasting and another book entitled, What rich mast is saved? one book On Calumny, On ecclesiastical canons and against those who follow the error of the Jews one book which he addressed to Alexander bishop of Jerusalem. He also mentions in his volumes of Stromata the work of Tatian Against the nations which we mentioned above and a Chronography of one Cassianus, a work which I have not been able to find. He also mentioned certain Jewish writers against the nations, one Aristobulus and Demetrius and Eupolemus who after the example of Josephus asserted the primacy of Moses and the Jewish people. There is a letter of Alexander the bishop of Jerusalem who afterwards ruled the church with Narcissus, on the ordination of Asclepiades the confessor, addressed to the Antiochians congratulating them, at the end of which he says "these writings honouredbrethren I have sent to you by the blessed presbyter Clement, a man illustrious and approved, whom you also know and with whom now you will become better acquainted a man who, when he had come hither by the special providence of God. strengthened and enlarged the church of God." Origen is known to have been his disciple. He flourished moreover during the reigns of Severus and his son Antoninus.

Caput XXXIX

Miltiades, cujus Rhodon in opere suo, quod adversus Montanum, Priscam, Maximillamque composuit, recordatur, scripsit contra eosdem volumen praecipuum, et adversus Gentes Judaeosque libros alios, et Principibus illius temporis Apologeticum dedit. Floruit autem M. Antonini Commodique temporibus.

Chapter 39. Miltiades

Miltiades, of whom Rhodo gives an account in the work which he wrote against Montanus, Prisca and Maximilla, wrote a considerable volume against these same persons, and other books Against the nations and the Jews and addressed an Apology to the then ruling emperors. He flourished in the reign of Marcus Antoninus and Commodus.

Caput XL

Apollonius, vir disertissimus, scripsit adversus Montanum, Priscam et Maximillam insigne et longum volumen, in quo asserit Montanum, et insanas vates ejus periisse suspendio: et multa alia, in quibus de Prisca et Maximilla refert: Si negant eas accepisse munera, confiteantur non esse Prophetas, qui accipiunt: et mille hoc testibus approbabo. Sed et ex aliis fructibus probantur Prophetae. Dic mihi, crinem fucat Prophetes? stibio oculos linit? Prophetae vestibus et gemmis ornantur? Prophetes tabula ludit et tesseris? Propheta fenus accipit? Respondeant, utrum hoc fieri liceat, an non: meum est approbare, quod fecerint. Dicit in eodem libro, quadragesimum esse annum usque ad tempus, quo ipse scribebat librum, ex quo haeresis Cataphrygarum habuerit exordium. Tertullianus sex voluminibus adversus Ecclesiam editis, quae scripsit περὶ ἐκστάσεως, septimum proprie adversus Apollonium elaboravit, in quo omnia, quae ille arguit, conatur defendere. Floruit autem Apollonius sub Commodo Severoque principibus.

Chapter 40. Apollonius

Apollonius, an exceedingly talented man, wrote against Montanus, Prisca and Maximilla a notable and lengthy volume, in which he asserts that Montanus and his mad prophetesses died by hanging, and many other things, among which are the following concerning Prisca and Maximilla, "if they denied that they have accepted gifts, let them confess that those who do accept are not prophets and I will prove by a thousand witnesses that they have received gifts, for it is by other fruits that prophets are shown to be prophets indeed. Tell me, does a prophet dye his hair?Does a prophet stain her eyelids with antimony? Is a prophet adorned with fine garments and precious stones? Does a prophet play with dice and tables? Does he accept usury? Let them respond whether this ought to be permitted or not, it will be my task to prove that they do these things." He says in the same book, that the time when he wrote the work was the fortieth year after the beginning of the heresy of the Cataphrygians. Tertullian added to the six volumes which he wrote On ecstasy against the church a seventh, directed especially against Apollonius, in which he attempts to defend all which Apollonius refuted. Apollonius flourished in the reigns of Commodus and Severus.

Caput XLI

Serapion, undecimo Commodi imperatoris anno Antiochiae episcopus ordinatus, scripsit epistolam ad Caricum et Pontium, de haeresi Montani, in qua et haec addit: Ut autem sciatis falsi hujus dogmatis, id est, novae prophetiae ab omni mundo insaniam reprobari, misi vobis Apollinaris beatissimi, qui fuit in Hierapoli Asiae episcopus, litteras. Ad Domninum quoque, qui persecutionis tempore ad Judaeos declinaverat, volumen composuit; et alium de Evangelio, quod sub nomine Petri fertur, librum ad Rhosensem Ciliciae Ecclesiam, quae in haeresim ejus lectione diverterat. Leguntur et sparsim ejus breves epistolae, auctoris sui ἀσχήσει et vitae congruentes.

Chapter 41. Serapion

Serapion, ordained bishop of Antioch in the eleventh year of the emperor Commodus, wrote a letter to Caricus and Pontiuson the heresy of Montanus, in which he said " that you may know moreover that the madness of this false doctrine, that is the doctrine of a new prophecy, is reprobated by all the world, I have sent to you the letters of the most holy Apollinaris bishop of Hierapolis in Asia." He wrote a volume also to Domnus, who in time of persecution went over to the Jews, and another work on the gospel which passes under the name of Peter, a work to the church of the Rhosenses in Cilicia who by the reading of this book had turned aside to heresy. There are here and there short letters of his, harmonious in character with the ascetic life of their author.

Caput XLII

Apollonius, Romanae urbis senator, sub Commodo principe a servo Severo proditus, quod Christianus esset, impetrato, ut rationem fidei suae redderet, insigne volumen composuit, quod in senatu legit; et nihilominus sententia senatus, pro Christo capite truncatus est veteri apud eos obtinente lege, absque negatione non dimitti Christianos, qui semel ad eorum judicium pertracti essent.

Chapter 42. Apollonius

Apollonius, a Roman senator under the emperor Commodus, having been denounced by a slave as a Christian, gained permission to give a reason for his faith and wrote a remarkable volume which he read in the senate, yet none the less, by the will of the senate, he was beheaded for Christ by virtue of an ancient law among them, that Christians who had once been brought before their judgment seat should not be dismissed unless they recanted.

Caput XLIII

Theophilus, Caesareae Palaestinae (quae olim Turris Stratonis vocabatur) Episcopus, sub Severo principe, adversum eos, qui decima quarta luna cum Judaeis Pascha faciebant, cum caeteris Episcopis synodicam valde utilem composuit epistolam.

Chapter 43. Theophilus

Theophilus, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, the city formerly called Turris Stratonis, in the reign of the emperor Severus wrote, in conjunction with other bishops, a synodical letter of great utility against those who celebrated the passover with the Jews on the fourteenth day of the month.

Caput XLIV

Bacchylus, Corinthi episcopus, sub eodem Severo principe clarus habitus, de Pascha ex omnium qui in Achaia erant episcoporum persona, elegantem librum scripsit.

Chapter 44. Bacchylus

Bacchylus, bishop of Corinth, was held in renown under the same emperor Severus, and wrote, as representative of all the bishops who were in Achaia, an elegant work On the passover.

Caput XLV

Polycrates, Ephesiorum episcopus, cum caeteris episcopis Asiae, qui juxta quamdam veterem consuetudinem cum Judaeis decima quarta luna Pascha celebrabant, scripsit adversus Victorem, episcopum Romanum, epistolam synodicam, in qua docet, se apostoli Joannis, et veterum auctoritatem sequi: de qua haec pauca excerpsimus: Nos igitur inviolabilem celebramus diem, neque addentes aliquid, neque dementes. Etenim in Asia elementa maxima dormierunt, quae resurgent in die Domini, quando venturus est de coelis in majestate sua, suscitaturus omnes sanctos: Philippum loquor de duodecim Apostolis, qui dormivit Hierapoli, et duas filias ejus, quae virgines senuerunt, et aliam ejus filiam, quae Spiritu sancto plena in Epheso occubuit. Sed et Joannes, qui super pectus Domini recubuit, et pontifex ejus auream laminam in fronte portans, martyr et doctor in Epheso dormivit: et Polycarpus, episcopus et martyr, Smyrnae cubat. Thraseas quoque episcopus et martyr de Eumenia in eadem Smyrna requiescit. Quid necesse est Sagaris episcopi et martyris recordari, qui in Laodicea soporatur, et Papirii beati, et Melitonis in sancto Spiritu eunuchi, qui semper Domino serviens, positus est in Sardis, et exspectat in adventu ejus resurrectionem? Hi omnes observaverunt Paschae diem decima quarta luna, ab Evangelica traditione in nullam partem declinantes, et Ecclesiasticum sequentes canonem. Ego quoque minimus omnium vestrum Polycrates, secundum doctrinam propinquorum meorum, quos et secutus sum: septem siquidem fuerunt propinqui mei episcopi, et ego octavus: semper Pascha celebravi, quando populus Judaeorum azyma faciebat. Itaque, fratres, sexaginta quinque annos aetatis meae natus in Domino, et a multis ex toto orbe fratribus eruditus, peragrata omni Scriptura, non formidabo eos, qui nobis minantur. Dixerunt enim majores mei: Obedire Deo magis oportet, quam hominibus. Haec propterea posui, ut ingenium et auctoritatem viri ex parvo opusculo demonstrarem. Floruit temporibus Severi Principis, eadem aetate qua Narcissus Hierosolymae.

Chapter 45. Polycrates

Polycrates, bishop of the Ephesians with other bishops of Asia who in accordance with some ancient custom celebrated the passover with the Jews on the fourteenth of the month, wrote a synodical letter against Victor bishop of Rome in which he says that he follows the authority of the apostle John and of the ancients. From this we make the following brief quotations, "We therefore celebrate the day according to usage, inviolably, neither adding anything to nor taking anything from it, for in Asia lie the remains of the greatest saints of those who shall rise again on the day of the Lord, when he shall come in majesty from heaven and shall quicken all the saints, I mean Philip one of the twelve apostles who sleeps at Hierapolis and his two daughters who were virgins until their death and another daughter of his who died at Ephesus full of the Holy Spirit. And John too, who lay on Our Lord's breast and was his high priest carrying the golden frontlet on his forehead, both martyr and doctor, fell asleep at Ephesus and Polycarp bishop and martyr died at Smyrna. Thraseas of Eumenia also, bishop and martyr, rests in the same Smyrna. What need is there of mentioning Sagaris, bishop and martyr, who sleeps in Laodicea and the blessed Papyrus and Melito, eunuch in the Holy Spirit, who, ever serving the Lord, was laid to rest in Sardis and there awaits his resurrection at Christ's advent. These all observed the day of the passover on the fourteenth of the month, in nowise departing from the evangelical tradition and following the ecclesiastical canon. I also, Poly-crates, the least of all your servants, according to the doctrine of my relatives which I also have followed (for there were seven of my relatives bishops indeed and I the eighth) have always celebrated the passover when the Jewish people celebrated the putting away of the leaven. And so brethren being sixty-five years old in the Lord and instructed by many brethren from all parts of the world, and having searched all the Scriptures, I will not fear those who threaten us, for my predecessors said "It is fitting to obey God rather than men." I quote this to show through a small example the genius and authority of the man. He flourished in the reign of the emperor Severus in the same period as Narcissus of Jerusalem.

Caput XLVI

Heraclitus sub Commodi Severique imperio in Apostolum Commentarios composuit.

Chapter 46. Heraclitus

Heraclitusin the reign of Commodus and Severus wrote commentaries on the Acts and Epistles.

Caput XLVII

Maximus, sub iisdem principibus famosam quaestionem insigni volumine ventilavit, unde malum, et quod materia a Deo facta sit.

Chapter 47. Maximus

Maximus, under the same emperors propounded in a remarkable volume the famous questions, What is the origin of evil? and Whether matter is made by God.

Caput XLVIII

Candidus, regnantibus supra scriptis, in Hexaemeron pulcherrimos tractatus edidit.

Chapter 48. Candidus

Candidusunder the above-mentioned emperors published most admirable treatises On the six days of creation.

Caput XLIX

Appion, sub Severo principe, similiter in Hexaemeron tractatus fecit.

Chapter 49. Appion

Appion under the emperor Severus likewise wrote treatises On the six days of creation.

Caput L

Sextus sub imperatore Severo, librum de resurrectione scripsit.

Chapter 50. Sextus

Sextus in the reign of the emperor Severus wrote a book On the resurrection.

Caput LI

Arabianus sub eodem principe, edidit quaedam opuscula ad Christianum dogma pertinentia.

Chapter 51. Arabianus

Arabianus under the same emperor published certain small works relating to christian doctrine.

Caput LII

Judas de septuaginta apud Danielem hebdomadibus plenissime disputavit, et chronographiam superiorum temporum usque ad decimum Severi produxit annum. In qua erroris arguitur, quod adventum Antichristi circa sua tempora futurum esse dixerit: sed hoc ideo, quia magnitudo persecutionum praesentem mundi minabatur occasum.

Chapter 52. Judas

Judas, discussed at length the seventy weeks mentioned in Daniel and wrote a Chronography of former times which he brought up to the tenth year of Severus. He is convicted of error in respect of this work in that he prophesied that the advent of Anti-Christ would be about his period, but this was because the greatness of the persecutions seemed to forebode the end of the world.

Caput LIII

Tertullianus presbyter, nunc demum primus post Victorem et Appollonium Latinorum ponitur, provinciae Africae, civitatis Carthaginiensis, patre Centurione Proconsulari. Hic acris et vehementis ingenii, sub Severo principe et Antonino Caracalla maxime floruit, multaque scripsit volumina, quae quia nota sunt pluribus, praetermittimus. Vidi ego quemdam Paulum Concordiae, quod oppidum Italiae est, senem, qui se beati Cypriani, jam grandis aetatis, notarium, cum ipse admodum esset adolescens, Romae vidisse diceret, referreque sibi solitum numquam Cyprianum absque Tertulliani lectione unum diem praeterisse, ac sibi crebro dicere, Da magistrum: Tertullianum videlicet significans. Hic cum usque ad mediam aetatem et contumeliis clericorum Romanae Ecclesiae, ad Montani dogma delapsus, in multis libris Novae Prophetiae meminit, specialiter autem adversum Ecclesiam texuit volumina, de pudicitia, de persecutione, de jejuniis, de monogamia, de ecstasi libros sex, et septimum, quem adversum Apollonium composuit. Ferturque vixisse usque ad decrepitam aetatem, et multa, quae non exstant opuscula condidisse.

Chapter 53. Tertullian

Tertullianthe presbyter, now regarded as chief of the Latin writers after Victor and Apollonius, was from the city of Carthage in the province of Africa, and was the son of a proconsul or Centurion, a man of keen and vigorous character, he flourished chiefly in the reign of the emperor Severus and Antoninus Caracalla and wrote many volumes which we pass by because they are well known to most. I myself have seen a certain Paul an old man of Concordia, a town of Italy, who, while he himself was a very young man had been secretary to the blessed Cyprian who was already advanced in age. He said that he himself had seen how Cyprian was accustomed never to pass a day without reading Tertullian, and that be frequently said to him, "Give me the master, " meaning by this, Tertullian. He was presbyter of the church until middle life, afterwards driven by the envy and abuse of the clergy of the Roman church, he lapsed to the doctrine of Montanus, and mentions the new prophecy in many of his books.

He composed, moreover, directly against the church, volumes: On modesty, On persecution, On fasts, On monogamy, six books On ecstasy, and a seventh which he wrote Against Apollonius. He is said to have lived to a decrepit old age, and to have composed many small works, which are not extant.

Caput LIV

Origenes, qui et Adamantius, decimo Severi Pertinacis anno adversum Christianos persecutione commota, a Leonide Patre, Christi martyrio coronato, cum sex fratribus et matre vidua, pauper relinquitur, annos natus circiter decem et septem. Rem enim familiarem ob confessionem Christi fiscus occupaverat. Hic Alexandriae dispersa Ecclesia, decimo octavo aetatis suae anno, κατηχήσεων opus aggressus, postea a Demetrio, ejus urbis episcopo, in locum Clementis presbyteri confirmatus, per multos annos floruit: et cum jam mediae esset aetatis, et propter Ecclesias Achaiae, quae pluribus haeresibus vexabantur, sub testimonio Ecclesiasticae epistolae Athenas per Palaestinam pergeret, a Theoctisto et Alexandro, Caesareae et Hierosolymorum episcopis, presbyter ordinatus Demetrii offendit animum; qui tanta in eum debacchatus est insania, ut per totum mundum super nomine ejus scriberet. Constat eum, antequam Caesaream migraret, fuisse Romae sub Zephyrino episcopo, et statim Alexandriam reversum, Heraclan presbyterum, qui sub habitu philosophi perseverabat, adjutorem sibi fecisse κατηχήσεως, qui quidem et post Demetrium Alexandrinam tenuit Ecclesiam. Quantae autem gloriae fuerit, hinc apparet, quod Firmilianus, Caesareae episcopus, cum omni Cappadocia eum invitavit, et diu tenuit, et postea sub occasione sanctorum locorum Palaestinam veniens, diu Caesareae in sanctis Scripturis ab eo eruditus est. Sed et illud, quod ad Mammeam, matrem Alexandri imperatoris, religiosam feminam, rogatus venit Antiochiam, et summo honore habitus est: quodque ad Philippum imperatorem, qui primus de regibus Romanis Christianus fuit, et ad matrem ejus litteras fecit, quae usque hodie exstant. Quis ignorat et quod tantum in Scripturis divinis habuerit studii, ut etiam Hebraeam linguam, contra aetatis gentisque suae naturam edisceret: et exceptis Septuaginta interpretibus, alias quoque editiones in unum congregaret volumen: Aquilae scilicet Pontici proselyti, et Theodotionis Hebionei, et Symmachi ejusdem dogmatis, qui in Evangelium quoque κατὰ Ματθαῖον scripsit commentarios, de quo et suum dogma confirmare conatur. Praeterea quintam et sextam et septimam editionem, quas etiam nos de ejus bibliotheca habemus, miro labore reperit, et cum caeteris editionibus comparavit. Et quia indicem operum ejus in voluminibus epistolarum, quas ad Paulam scripsimus, in quadam epistola contra Varronis opera conferens posui, nunc omitto: illud de immortali ejus ingenio non tacens, quod dialecticam quoque et geometriam, et arithmeticam, musicam, grammaticam et rhetoricam, omniumque philosophorum sectas ita didicit, ut studiosos quoque saecularium litterarum sectatores haberet, et interpretaretur eis quotidie, concursusque ad eum miri fierent: quos ille propterea recipiebat, ut sub occasione saecularis litteraturae in fide Christi eos institueret.

De crudelitate autem persecutionis, quae adversum Christianos sub Decio consurrexit, eo quod in religionem Philippi desaeviret, quem et interfecit, superfluum est dicere: cum etiam Fabianus, Romanae Ecclesiae episcopus, in ipsa occubuerit, et Alexander Babylasque Hierosolymorum et Antiochenae Ecclesiae pontifices, in carcere pro confessione Christi dormierint. Et super Origenis statu si quis scire velit, quid actum sit, primum quidem de epistolis ejus, quae post persecutionem ad diversos missae sunt: deinde de sexto Eusebii Caesariensis ecclesiasticae historiae libro, et pro eodem Origene in sex voluminibus, poterit liquido cognoscere.

Vixit usque ad Gallum et Volusianum, id est, usque ad LXIX aetatis suae annum; et mortuus est Tyri, in qua urbe et sepultus est.

Chapter 54. Origen

Origen, surnamed Adamantius, a persecution having been raised against the Christians in the tenth year of Severus Pertinax, and his father Leonidas having received the crown of martyrdom for Christ, was left at the age of about seventeen, with his six brothers and widowed mother, in poverty, for their property had been confiscated because of confessing Christ. When only eighteen years old, he undertook the work of instructing the Catechetes in the scattered churches of Alexandria. Afterwards appointed by Demetrius. bishop of this city. successor to the presbyter Clement, he flourished many years. When he had already reached middle life, on account of the churches of Achaia, which were torn with many heresies, he was journeying to Athens, by way of Palestine, under the authority of an ecclesiastical letter, and having been ordained presbyter by Theoctistus and Alexander, bishops of Caesarea and Jerusalem, he offended Demetrius, who was so wildly enraged at him that he wrote everywhere to injure his reputation. It is known that before he went to Caesarea, he had been at Rome, trader bishop Zephyrinus. Immediately on his return to Alexandria he made Heraclas the presbyter, who continued to wear his philosopher's garb, his assistant in the school for catechetes. Heraclas became bishop of the church of Alexandria, after Demetrius. How great the glory of Origen was, appears from the fact that Firmilianus, bishop of Caesarea, with all the Cappadocian bishops, sought a visit from him, and entertained him for a long while. Sometime afterwards, going to Palestine to visit the holy places, he came to Caesarea and was instructed at length by Origen in the Holy Scriptures. It appears also from the fact that he went to Antioch, on the request of Mammaea, mother of the Emperor Alexander, and a woman religiously disposed, and was there held in great honour, and sent letters to the Emperor Philip, who was the first among the Roman rulers, to become a christian, and to his mother, letters which are still extant. Who is there, who does not also know that he was so assiduous in the study of Holy Scriptures, that contrary to the spirit of his time, and of his people, he learned the Hebrew language, and taking the Septuagint translation, he gathered the other translations also in a single work, namely, that of Aquila, of Ponticus the Proselyte, and Theodotian the Ebonite, and Symmachus an adherent of the same sect who wrote commentaries also on the gospel according to Matthew, from which he tried to establish his doctrine. And besides these, a fifth, sixth, and seventh translation, which we also have from his library, he sought out with great diligence, and compared with other editions. And since I have given a list of his works, in the volumes of letters which I have written to Paula, in a letter which I wrote against the works of Varro, I pass this by now, not failing however, to make mention of his immortal genius, how that he understood dialectics, as well as geometry, arithmetic, music, grammar, and rhetoric, and taught all the schools of philosophers, in such wise that he had also diligent students in secular literature, and lectured to them daily, and the crowds which flocked to him were marvellous. These, he received in the hope that through the instrumentality of this secular literature, he might establish them in the faith of Christ.

It is unnecessary to speak of the cruelty of that persecution which was raised against the Christians and under Decius, who was mad against the religion of Philip, whom he had slain,  — the persecution in which Fabianus, bishop of the Roman church, perished at Rome, and Alexander and Babylas, Pontifs of the churches of Jerusalem and Antioch, were imprisoned for their confession of Christ. If any one wishes to know what was done in regard to the position of Origen, he can clearly learn, first indeed from his own epistles, which after the persecution, were sent to different ones, and secondly, from the sixth book of the church history of Eusebius of Caesarea, and from his six volumes in behalf of the same Origen.

He lived until the time of Gallus and Volusianus, that is, until his sixty-ninth year, and died at Tyre, in which city he also was buried.

Caput LV

Ammonius, vir disertus et valde eruditus in philosophia, eodem tempore Alexandriae clarus habitus est: qui inter multa ingenii sui et praeclara monumenta etiam de consonantia Moysi et Jesu elegans opus composuit, et evangelicos canones excogitavit, quos postea secutus est Eusebius Caesariensis. Hunc falso accusat Porphyrius, quod ex Christiano Ethnicus fuerit, cum constet eum usque ad extremam vitam Christianum perseverasse.

Chapter 55. Ammonius

Ammonius, a talented man of great philosophical learning, was distinguished at Alexandria, at the same time. Among many and distinguished monuments of his genius, is the elaborate work which he composed On the harmony of Moses and Jesus, and the Gospel canons, which he worked out, and which Eusebius of Caesarea, afterwards followed. Porphyry falsely accused him of having become a heathen again, after being a Christian, but it is certain that he continued a Christian until the very end of his life.

Caput LVI

Ambrosius primum Marcionites, deinde ab Origene correctus, Ecclesiae diaconus, et confessionis Dominicae gloria insignis fuit, cui et Protocteto presbytero liber Origenis de Martyrio scribitur. Hujus industria, et sumptu et instantia adjutus infinita Origenes dictavit volumina. Sed et ipse, quippe ut vir nobilis, non inelegantis ingenii fuit, sicut ejus ad Origenem epistolae indicio sunt. Obiit ante mortem Origenis; et in hoc a plerisque reprehenditur, quod vir locuples amici sui senis et pauperis moriens non recordatus sit.

Chapter 56. Ambrosius

Ambrosius, at first a Marcionite but afterwards set right by Origen, was deacon in the church, and gloriously distinguished as confessor of the Lord. To him, together with Protoctetus the presbyter, the book of Origen, On martyrdom was written. Aided by his industry, funds, and perseverance, Origen dictated a great number of volumes. He himself, as befits a man of noble nature, was of no mean literary talent, as his letters to Origen indicate. He died moreover, before the death of Origen, and is condemned by many, in that being a man of wealth, he did not at death, remember in his will, his old and needy friend.

Caput LVII

Tryphon, Origenis auditor, ad quem nonnullae ejus exstant epistolae, in Scripturis eruditissimus fuit. Quod quidem et multa ejus sparsim ostendunt opuscula, sed praecipue liber, quem composuit de Vacca rufa in Deuteronomio, et de Dichotomematibus, quae cum columba et turture Abraham ponuntur in Genesi.

Chapter 57. Trypho

Trypho, pupil of Origen, to whom some of his extant letters are addressed, was very learned in the Scriptures, and this many of his works show here and there, but especially the book which he composed On the red heifer in Deuteronomy, and On the halves, which with the pigeon and the turtledoves were offered by Abraham as recorded in Genesis.

Caput LVIII

Minucius Felix, Romae insignis causidicus, scripsit Dialogum Christiani et Ethnici disputantium, qui Octavius inscribitur. Sed et alius sub nomine ejus fertur de Fato, vel contra mathematicos, qui cum sit et ipse diserti hominis, non mihi videtur cum superioris libri stylo convenire. Meminit hujus Minucii et Lactantius in libris suis.

Chapter 58. Minucius Felix

Minucius Felix, a distinguished advocate of Rome, wrote a dialogue representing a discussion between a Christian and a Gentile, which is entitled Octavius, and still another work passes current in his name, On fate, or Against the mathematicians, but this although it is the work of a talented man, does not seem to me to correspond in style with the above mentioned work. Lactantius also mentions this Minucius in his works.

Caput LIX

Gaius, sub Zephyrino Romanae urbis episcopo, id est sub Antonino Severi filio, disputationem adversum Proculum, Montani sectatorem, valde insignem habuit, arguens eum temeritatis, super Nova Prophetia defendenda, et in eodem volumine Epistolas quoque Pauli, tredecim tantum enumerans; decimam quartam quae fertur ad Hebraeos, dicit non ejus esse, sed et apud Romanos usque hodie quasi Pauli apostoli non habetur.

Chapter 59. Gaius

Gaius, bishop of Rome, in the time of Zephyrinus, that is, in the reign of Antoninus, the son of Severus, delivered a very notable disputation Against Proculus, the follower of Montanus, convicting him of temerity in his defence of the new prophecy, and in the same volume also enumerating only thirteen epistles of Paul, says that the fourteenth, which is now called, To the Hebrews, is not by him, and is not considered among the Romans to the present day as being by the apostle Paul.

Caput LX

Beryllus, Arabiae Bostrenus episcopus, cum aliquanto tempore gloriose rexisset Ecclesiam, ad extremum lapsus in haeresim, quae Christum ante incarnationem negat, ab Origene correctus. Scripsit varia opuscula, et maxime epistolas, in quibus Origeni gratias agit, sed et Origenis ad eum litterae sunt. Exstat dialogus Origenis et Berylli, in quo haereseos coarguitur. Claruit autem sub Alexandro, Mammeae filio, et Maximino et Gordiano, qui ei in imperium successerunt.

Chapter 60. Beryllus

Beryllus, bishop of Bostra in Arabia, after he had ruled the church gloriously for a little while, finally lapsed into the heresy which denies that Christ existed before the incarnation. Set right by Origen, he wrote various short works, especially letters, in which he thanks Origen. The letters of Origen to him, are also extant, and a dialogue between Origen and Beryllus as well, in which heresies are discussed. He was distinguished during the reign of Alexander, son of Mammaea, and Maximinus and Gordianus, who succeeded him in power.

Caput LXI

Hippolytus, cujusdam Ecclesiae episcopus, nomen quippe urbis scire non potui, rationem Paschae temporumque Canones scripsit, usque ad primum annum Alexandri imperatoris, et sedecim annorum circulum, quem Graeci ἑκκαιδεκαετηρίδα vocant, reperit, et Eusebio, qui super eodem Pascha Canonem, decem et novem annorum circulum, id est, ἐννεακαιδεκαετηρίδα composuit, occasionem dedit. Scripsit nonnullos in Scripturas commentarios, e quibus hos reperi: in ἑξαήμερον, et in Exodum, in Canticum Canticorum, in Genesim, et in Zachariam: de Psalmis, et in Isaiam, de Daniele, de Apocalypsi, de Proverbiis, de Ecclesiaste, de Saul et Pythonissa, de Antichristo, de Resurrectione, contra Marcionem, de Pascha, adversum omnes haereses, et Προσομιλίαν de laude Domini Salvatoris, in qua, praesente Origene, se loqui in Ecclesia significat. In hujus aemulationem Ambrosius, quem de Marcionis haeresi ad veram fidem correctum diximus, cohortatus est Origenem, in Scripturas commentarios scribere, praebens ei septem et eo amplius notarios, eorumque expensas, et librariorum parem numerum, quodque his majus est, incredibili studio quotidie ab eo opus exigens. Unde in quadam epistola ἐργοδιώκτην eum Origenes vocat.

Chapter 61. Hippolytus

Hippolytus, bishop of some church (the name of the city I have not been able to learn) wrote A reckoning of the Paschal feast and chronological tables which be worked out up to the first year of the Emperor Alexander. He also discussed the cycle of sixteen years, which the Greeks called ekkaQdekaeGhrida and gave the cue to Eusebius, who composed on the same Paschal feast a cycle of nineteen years, that is euueakaidekaeGhrida. He wrote Some commentaries on the Scriptures, among which are the following: On the six days of creation, On Exodus, On the Song of Songs, On Genesis, On Zechariah, On the Psalms, On Isaiah, On Daniel, On the Apocalypse, On the Proverbs, On Ecclesiastes, On Saul, On the Pythonissa, On the Antichrist, On the resurrection, Against Marcion, On the Passover, Against all heresies, and an exhortation On the praise of our Lord and Saviour. in which he indicates that he is speaking in the church in the presence of Origen. Ambrosius, who we have said was converted by Origen from the heresy of Marcion, to the true faith. urged Origen to write, in emulation of Hyppolytus, commentaries on the Scriptures, offering him seven, and even more secretaries, and their expenses, and an equal number of copyists, and what is still more, with incredible zeal. daily exacting work from him, on which account Origen, in one of his epistles, calls him his "Taskmaster."

Caput LXII

Alexander, episcopus Cappadociae, cum desiderio sanctorum locorum Hierosolymam pergeret, et Narcissus episcopus ejusdem urbis jam senex regeret Ecclesiam, et Narcisso et multis clericorum ejus revelatum est, altera die mane intrare episcopum, qui adjutor sacerdotalis cathedrae esse deberet. Itaque re ita completa, ut praedicta fuerat, cunctis in Palaestina episcopis in unum congregatis, adnitente quoque ipso vel maxime Narcisso, Hierosolymitanae Ecclesiae cum eo gubernaculum suscepit. Hic in fine cujusdam epistolae, quam scribit ad Antinoitas super pace Ecclesiae ait: Salutat vos Narcissus, qui ante me hic tenuit episcopalem locum, et nunc mecum eumdem orationibus regit, annos natus circiter centum sedecim, et vos mecum precatur ut unum idemque sapiatis. Scripsit et aliam ad Antiochenses, per Clementem presbyterum Alexandriae, de quo supra diximus, nec non ad Origenem, et pro Origene contra Demetrium; eo quod juxta testimonium Demetrii eum presbyterum constituerit. Sed et aliae ejus ad diversos feruntur epistolae. Septima autem persecutione sub Decio, quo tempore Babylas Antiochiae passus est, ductus Caesaream, et clausus in carcere, ob confessionem Christi martyrio coronatur.

Chapter 62. Alexander of Cappadocia

Alexander, bishop of Cappadocia, desiring to visit the Holy Land, came to Jerusalem, at the time when Narcissus, bishop of this city, already an old man, ruled the church. It was revealed to Narcissus and many of his clergy, that on the morning of the next day, a bishop would enter the city, who should be assistant on the sacerdotal throne. And so it came topass, as it was predicted, and all the bishops of Palestine being gathered together, Narcissus himself being especially urgent, Alexander took with him the helm of the church of Jerusalem. At the end of one of his epistles, written to the Antinoites On the peace of the church. He says "Narcissus, who held the bishopric here before me, and now with me exercises his office by his prayers, being about a hundred and sixteen years old, salutes you, and with me begs you to become of one mind." He wrote another also To the Antiocheans, by the hand of Clement, the presbyter of Alexandria, of whom we spoke above, another also To Origen, and In behalf of Origen against Demetrius, called forth by the fact that, according to the testimony of Demetrius, he had made Origen presbyter. There are other epistles of his to different persons. In the seventh persecution under Decius, at the time when Babylas of Antioch was put to death, brought to Caesarea and shut up in prison, he received the crown of martyrdom for confessing Christ.

Caput LXIII

Julius Africanus, cujus quinque de Temporibus exstant volumina, sub Imperatore M. Aurelio Antonino, qui Macrino successerat, legationem pro instauratione urbis Emmaus suscepit, quae postea Nicopolis appellata est. Hujus est epistola ad Origenem super quaestione Susannae: eo quod dicat in Hebraeo hanc fabulam non haberi, nec convenire cum Hebraica etymologia ἀπὸ τοῦ σχίνου σχίσαι, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρίνου πρίσαι, contra quem doctam epistolam scribit Origenes. Exstat ejus ad Aristidem altera epistola, in qua super διαφωνίᾳ, quae videtur esse in genealogia Salvatoris apud Matthaeum et Lucam, plenissime disputat.

Chapter 63. Julius Africanus

Julius Africanus, whose five volumes On Chronology, are yet extant, in the reign of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, who succeeded Macrinus, received a commission to restore the city of Emmaus, which afterwards was called Nicopolis. There is an epistle of his to Origen, On the question of Susanna, where it is contended that this story is not contained in the Hebrew, and is not consistent with the Hebrew etymology in respect of the play on "prinos and prisai, " "schinos and schisai." In reply to this, Origen wrote a learned epistle. There is extant another letter of his, To Aristides, in which he discusses at length the discrepancies, which appear in the genealogy of our Saviour, as recorded by Matthew and Luke.

Caput LXIV

Geminus, Antiochenae Ecclesiae presbyter, pauca ingenii sui monumenta composuit, florens sub Alexandro principe, et episcopo urbis suae Zebenno, eo vel maxime tempore, quo Heraclas Alexandrinae Ecclesiae pontifex ordinatus est.

Chapter 62. Geminus

Geminus, presbyter of the church at Antioch, composed a few monuments of his genius, flourishing in the time of the Emperor Alexander and Zebennus, bishop of his city, especially at the time at which Heraclas was ordained Pontiff of the church at Alexandria.

Caput LXV

Theodorus, qui postea Gregorius appellatus est, Neocaesareae Ponti episcopus, admodum adolescens, ob studia Graecarum et Latinarum litterarum, de Cappadocia Berytum, et inde Caesaream Palaestinae transiit, juncto sibi fratre Athenodoro. Quorum cum egregiam indolem vidisset Origenes, hortatus est eos ad philosophiam, in qua paulatim Christi fidem subintroducens, sui quoque sectatores reddidit. Quinquennio itaque eruditi ab eo remittuntur ad matrem, e quibus Theodorus proficiscens, πανηγυρικὸν εὐχαριστίας scripsit Origeni: et convocata grandi frequentia, ipso quoque Origene praesente, recitavit, qui usque hodie exstat. Scripsit et μετάφρασιν in Ecclesiasten brevem quidem, sed valde utilem. Et aliae hujus vulgo feruntur epistolae, sed praecipue signa atque miracula, quae jam episcopus cum multa Ecclesiarum gloria perpetravit.

Chapter 65. Theodorus (Gregory of Neocaesarea)

Theodorus, afterwards called Gregory, bishop of Neocaesarea in Pontus, while yet a very young man, in company with his brother Athenodorus, went from Cappadocia to Berytus, and thence to Caesarea in Palestine, to study Greek and Latin literature. When Origen had seen the remarkable natural ability of these men, he urged them to study philosophy, in the teaching of which he gradually introduced the matter of faith in Christ, and made them also his followers. So, instructed by him for five years, they were sent back by him to their mother. Theodorus, on his departure, wrote a panegyric of thanks to Origen, and delivered it before a large assembly. Origen himself being present. This panegyric is extant at the present day. He wrote also a short, but very valuable, paraphrase On Ecclesiastes, and current report speaks or other epistles of his, but more especially of the signs and wonders. which as bishop, he performed to the great glory of the churches.

Caput LXVI

Cornelius, Romanae urbis episcopus, ad quem octo Cypriani exstant epistolae, scripsit epistolam ad Fabium Antiochenae Ecclesiae episcopum, de synodo Romana, Italica, Africana, et aliam de Novatiano, et de his qui lapsi sunt; tertiam de gestis synodi (Romanae an. 251); quartam ad eumdem Fabium valde prolixam, et Novatianae haereseos causas et anathema continentem. Rexit Ecclesiam annis duobus sub Gallo et Volusiano, cui ob Christum martyrio coronato, successit Lucius.

Chapter 66. Cornelius

Cornelius, bishop of Rome, to whom eight letters of Cyprian are extant, wrote a letter to Fabius, bishop of the church at Antioch, On the Roman, Italian, and African councils, and another On Novatian and those who had fallen from the faith, a third On the acts of the council, and a fourth very prolix one to the same Fabius, containing the causes of the Novatian heresy and an anathema of it. He ruled the church for two years under Gallus and Volusianus. He received the crown of martyrdom for Christ, and was succeeded by Lucius.

Caput LXVII

Cyprianus Afer, primum gloriose rhetoricam docuit; exinde suadente presbytero Caecilio, a quo et cognomentum sortitus est, Christianus factus, omnem substantiam suam pauperibus erogavit, ac post non multum temporis electus in presbyterum, etiam episcopus Carthaginiensis constitutus est. Hujus ingenii superfluum est indicem texere, cum sole clariora sint ejus opera. Passus est sub Valeriano et Galieno principibus, persecutione octava, eodem die quo Romae Cornelius, sed non eodem anno.

Chapter 67. Cyprian of Africa

Cyprian of Africa, at first was famous as a teacher of rhetoric, and afterwards on, the persuasion of the presbyter Caecilius, from whom he received his surname, he became a Christian, and gave all his substance to the poor. Not long after he was inducted into the presbytery, and was also made bishop of Carthage. It is unnecessary to make a catalogue of the works of his genius, since they are more conspicuous than the sun. He was put to death under the Emperors Valerian and Gallienus, in the eighth persecution, on the same day that Cornelius was put to death at Rome, but not in the same year.

Caput LXVIII

Pontius, diaconus Cypriani, usque ad diem passionis ejus cum ipso exsilium sustinens, egregium volumen vitae et passionis Cypriani reliquit.

Chapter 68. Pontius

Pontius, deacon of Cyprian, sharing his exile until the day of his death, left a notable volume On the life and death of Cyprian.

Caput LXIX

Dionysios, Alexandrinae urbis episcopus, sub Heracla scholam κατηχήσεων presbyter tenuit, et Origenis valde insignis auditor fuit. Hic in Cypriani et Africanae synodi dogma consentiens, de haereticis rebaptizandis, ad diversos plurimas misit epistolas, quae usque hodie exstant, et ad Fabium Antiochenae urbis episcopum scripsit de poenitentia, et ad Romanos per Hippolytum alteram: ad Xystum, qui Stephano successerat, duas epistolas, et ad Philemonem et ad Dionysium, Romanae Ecclesiae presbyteros, duas epistolas, et ad eumdem Dionysium, postea Romae episcopum, et ad Novatianum causantem, quod invitus Romae episcopus ordinatus esset, cujus epistolae hoc exordium est: Dionysius Novatiano fratri salutem. Si invitus, ut dicis, ordinatus es, probabis, cum volens secesseris. [Nam oportuit quidvis etiam hac gratia perpeti, ne discinderetur Ecclesia Dei. Neque minus praeclarum ex hoc contigisset testimonium, quod noluisses dissidium inducere, quam proficisci solet ex eo, si quis recuset simulacris immolare, atque adeo praeclarius etiam, mea quidem sententia, siquidem illic uni propriaeque consulitur animae, hic totius Ecclesiae negotium agitur. Tametsi nunc quoque si persuaseris, si compuleris fratres in concordiam redire, plus egeris officio, quam peccaris errato. Atque hoc quidem haud imputabitur, illud vero laudibus feretur. Caeterum si non obtemperantibus illis minus assequeris quod vis, tamen fac modis omnibus ut tuam ipsius serves animam.] Est ejus ad Dionysium et ad Didymum altera epistola, et ἑορταστικαὶ de Pascha plurimae, declamatorio sermone conscriptae, et ad Alexandrinam Ecclesiam de exsilio, et ad Hieracam in Aegypto episcopum, et alia de Mortalitate, et de Sabbato, et περὶ γυμνασίου, et ad Hermammonem, et alia de persecutione Decii, et duo libri adversum Nepotem episcopum, qui mille annorum corporale regnum suis scriptis asseverat, in quibus de Apocalypsi Joannis diligentissime disputat: et adversum Sabellium, et ad Ammonem Beronices Episcopum, et ad Telesphorum, et ad Euphranorem, et quatuor libri ad Dionysium Romanae urbis episcopum, et ad Laodicenses de poenitentia; item ad Canonem de poenitentia, et ad Origenem de martyrio, ad Armenios de poenitentia et de ordine delictorum, de natura ad Timotheum, de tentationibus ad Euphranorem. Ad Basilidem quoque multae Epistolae, in quarum una se asserit, etiam in Ecclesiasten coepisse scribere commentarios. Sed et adversus Paulum Samosatenum, ante paucos dies quam moreretur, insignis ejus fertur epistola. Moritur duodecimo Galieni anno.

Chapter 69. Dionysius of Alexandria

Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, as presbyter had charge of the catechetical school under Heraclas, and was the most distinguished pupil of Origen. Consenting to the doctrine of Cyprian and the African synod, on the rebaptizing of heretics, he sent many letters to different people, which are yet extant; He wrote one to Fabius, bishop of the church at Antioch, On penitence, another To the Romans, by the hand of Hippolytus, two letters To Xystus, who had succeeded Stephen, two also To Philemon and Dionysius, presbyters of the church at Rome, and another To the same Dionysius, afterwards bishop of Rome; and To Novatian, treating of their claim that Novatian had been ordained bishop of Rome, against his will. The beginning of this epistle is as follows: "Dionysius to Novatian, his brother greeting. If you have been ordained unwillingly, as you say, you will prove it, when yon shall willingly retire."

There is another epistle of his also To Dionysius and Didymus, and many Festal epistles on the passover, written in a declamatory style, also one to the church of Alexandria On exile, one To Hierax, bishop in Egypt, and vet others On mortality, On the Sabbath, and On the gymnasium, also one To Hermammon and others On the persecution of Decius, and two books Against Nepos the bishop, who asserted in his writings a thousand years reign in the body. Among other things he diligently discussed the Apocalypse of John, and wrote Against Sabellius and To Ammon, bishop of Bernice, and To Telesphorus, also To Euphranor, also four books To Dionysius, bishop of Rome, to the Laodiceans On penitence, to Origen On martyrdom, to the Armenians On penitence, also On the order of transgression, to Timothy On nature, to Euphranor On temptation, many letters also To Basilides, in one of which he asserts that he also began to write commentaries on Ecclesiastes. The notable epistle which he wrote against Paul of Samosta, a few days before his death is also current. He died in the twelfth year of Gallienus.

Caput LXX

Novatianus, Romanae urbis presbyter, adversus Cornelium cathedram sacerdotalem conatus invadere, Novatianorum, quod Graece dicitur Καθαρῶν dogma constituit, nolens apostatas suscipere poenitentes. Hujus auctor Novatus, Cypriani presbyter, fuit. Scripsit autem de Pascha, de Sabbato, de Circumcisione, de Sacerdote, de Oratione, de Cibis Judaicis, de Instantia, de Attalo multaque alia, et de Trinitate grande volumen, quasi ἐπιτομὴν operis Tertulliani faciens, quod plerique nescientes, Cypriani existimant.

Chapter 70. Novatianus

Novatianus, presbyter of Rome, attempted to usurp the sacerdotal chair occupied by Cornelius, and established the dogma of the Novatians, or as they are called in Greek, the Cathari, by refusing to receive penitent apostates. Novatus, author of this doctrine, was a presbyter of Cyprian. He wrote, On the passover, On the Sabbath, On circumcision, On the priesthood, On prayer, On the food of the Jews, On zeal, On Attalus, and many others, especially, a great volume On the Trinity, a sort of epitome of the work of Tertullian, which many mistakenly ascribe to Cyprian.

Caput LXXI

Malchion, disertissimus Antiochenae Ecclesiae presbyter, quippe qui in eadem urbe rhetoricam florentissime docuerat, adversum Paulum Samosatenum, qui Antiochenae Ecclesiae episcopus dogma Artemonis instaurarat, excipientibus notariis disputavit; qui dialogus usque hodie exstat. Sed et alia grandis epistola, ex persona synodi, ab eo scripta ad Dionysium et Maximum Romanae et Alexandrinae Ecclesiae episcopos dirigitur. Floruit sub Claudio et Aureliano.

Chapter 71. Malchion

Malchion, the highly gifted presbyter of the church at Antioch, who had most successfully taught rhetoric in the same city, held a discussion with Paul of Samosata, who as bishop of the church at Antioch, had introduced the doctrine of Artemon, and this was taken down by short hand writers. This dialogue is still extant, and vet another extended epistle written by him, in behalf of the council, is addressed to Dionysius and Maximus, bishops of Rome and Alexandria. He flourished under Claudius and Aurelianus.

Caput LXXII

Archelaus, episcopus Mesopotamiae, librum disputationis suae, quam habuit adversum Manichaeum, exeuntem de Perside, Syro sermone composuit, qui translatus in Graecum habetur a multis. Claruit sub imperatore Probo, qui Aureliano et Tacito successerat.

Chapter 72. Archelaus

Archelaus, bishop of Mesopotamia, composed in the Syriac language, a book of the discussion which he held with Manichaeus, when he came from Persia. This book, which is translated into Greek, is possessed by many. He flourished under the Emperor Probus, who succeeded Aurelianus and Tacitus.

Caput LXXIII

Anatolius Alexandrinus, Laodiceae Syriae episcopus, sub Probo et Caro imperatoribus floruit; mirae doctrinae vir fuit in arithmetica, geometria, astronomia, grammatica, rhetorica, dialectica. Cujus ingenii magnitudinem de volumine, quod super Pascha composuit, et decem libris de arithmeticae institutionibus, intelligere possumus.

Chapter 73. Anatolius of Alexandria

Anatolius of Alexandria, bishop of Laodicea in Syria, who flourished under the emperors Probus and Carus, was a man of wonderful learning in arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic. We can get an idea of the greatness of his genius from the volume which he wrote On the passover and his ten books On the institutes of arithmetic.

Caput LXXIV

Victorinus, Petavionensis episcopus, non aeque Latine ut Graece noverat. Unde opera ejus grandia sensibus, viliora videntur compositione verborum. Sunt autem haec: Commentarii in Genesim, in Exodum, in Leviticum, in Isaiam, in Ezechiel, in Abacuc, in Ecclesiasten, in Cantica Canticorum, in Apocalypsim Joannis, adversum omnes haereses, et multa alia. Ad extremum martyrio coronatus est.

Chapter 74. Victorinus

Victorinus, bishop of Pettau, was not equally familiar with Latin and Greek. On this account his works though noble in thought, are inferior in style. They are the following: Commentaries On Genesis, On Exodus, On Leviticus, On Isaiah, On Ezekiel. On Habakkuk, On Ecclesiastes, On the Song of Songs, On the Apocalypse of John, Against all heresies and many others. At the last he received the crown of martyrdom.

Caput LXXV

Pamphilus presbyter, Eusebii Caesariensis episcopi necessarius, tanto Bibliothecae divinae amore flagravit, ut maximam partem Origenis voluminum sua manu descripserit, quae usque hodie in Caesariensi bibliotheca habentur. Sed et in duodecim Prophetas viginti quinque ἐξηγήσεων Origenis volumina, manu ejus exarata reperi, quae tanto amplector et servo gaudio, ut Croesi opes habere me credam. Si enim laetitia est, unam epistolam habere Martyris, quanto magis tot millia versuum, quae mihi videtur sui sanguinis signasse vestigiis! Scripsit, antequam Eusebius Caesariensis scriberet, Apologeticum pro Origene, et passus est Caesareae Palaestinae sub persecutione Maximini.

Chapter 75. Pamphilus the Presbyter

Pamphilus the presbyter, patron of Eusebius bishop of Caesarea, was so inflamed with love of sacred literature, that he transcribed tim greater part of the works of Origen with his own hand and these are still preserved in the library at Caesarea. I have twenty-five volumes of Commentaries of Origen, written in his hand, On the twelve prophets which I hug and guard with such joy, that I deem myself to have the wealth of Croesus. And if it is such joy to have one epistle of a martyr how much more to have so many thousand lines which seem to me to be traced in his blood. He wrote an Apology for Origen before Eusebius had written his and was put to death at Caesarea in Palestine in the persecution of Maximinus.

Caput LXXVI

Pierius, Alexandrinae Ecclesiae presbyter, sub Caro et Diocletiano principibus, eo tempore quo eam Ecclesiam Theonas episcopus regebat, florentissime docuit populos, et in tantam sermonis diversorumque tractatuum, qui usque hodie exstant, venit elegantiam, ut Origenes junior vocaretur. Constat hunc mirae et appetitorem voluntariae paupertatis fuisse, scientissimum dialecticae et rhetoricae artis, et post persecutionem omne vitae suae tempus Romae fuisse versatum. Hujus est longissimus tractatus de propheta Osee, quem in vigilia Paschae habitum ipse sermo demonstrat.

Chapter 76. Pierius

Pierius, presbyter of the church at Alexandria in the reign of Carus and Diocletian, at the time when Theonas ruled as bishop in tim same church, taught the people with great success and attained such elegance of language and published so many treatises on all sorts of subjects (which are still extant) that he was called Origen Junior. He was remarkable for his self-discipline, devoted to voluntary poverty, and thoroughly acquainted with the dialectic art. After the persecution, he passed the rest of his life at Rome. There is extant a long treatise of his. On the prophet Hoses which from internal evidence appears to have been delivered on the vigil of Passover.

Caput LXXVII

Lucianus, vir disertissimus, Antiochenae Ecclesiae presbyter, tantum in Scripturarum studio laboravit, ut usque nunc quaedam exemplaria Scripturarum Lucianea nuncupentur. Feruntur ejus de Fide libelli, et breves ad nonnullos epistolae. Passus est Nicomediae ob confessionem Christi, sub persecutione Maximini, sepultusque Helenopoli Bithyniae.

Chapter 77. Lucianus

Lucianus, a man of great talent, presbyter of the church at Antioch, was so diligent in the study of the Scriptures, that even now certain copies of the Scriptures bear the name of Lucian. Works of his, On faith, and short Epistles to various people are extant. He was put to death at Nicomedia for his confession of Christ in the persecution of Maximinus, and was buried at Helenopolis in Bithynia.

Caput LXXVIII

Phileas, de urbe Aegypti quae vocatur Thmuis, nobili genere, et non parvis opibus, suscepto episcopatu, elegantissimum librum de Martyrum laude composuit, et disputatione actorum habita adversum Judicem, qui eum sacrificare cogebat, pro Christo capite truncatur; eodem in Aegypto persecutionis auctore, quo Lucianus Nicomediae.

Chapter 78. Phileas

Phileas a resident of that Egyptian city which is called Thmuis, of noble family, and no small wealth, having become bishop, composed a finely written work in praise of martyrs and arguing against the judge who tried to compel him to offer sacrifices, was beheaded for Christ during the same persecution in which Lucianus was put to death at Nicomedia.

Caput LXXIX

Arnobius sub Diocletiano principe Siccae apud Africam florentissime rhetoricam docuit, scripsitque adversum gentes, quae vulgo exstant, volumina.

Chapter 79. Arnobius

Arnobius was a most successful teacher of rhetoric at Sicca in Africa during the reign of Diocletian, and wrote volumes Against the nations which may be found everywhere.

Caput LXXX

Firmianus, qui et Lactantius, Arnobii discipulus, sub Diocletiano principe accitus cum Flavio Grammatico, cujus de Medicinalibus versu compositi exstant libri, Nicomediae rhetoricam docuit, et penuria discipulorum, ob Graecam videlicet civitatem, ad scribendum se contulit. Habemus ejus Symposium, quod adolescentulus scripsit; ὁδοιπορικὸν de Africa usque Nicomediam, hexametris scriptum versibus, et alium librum, qui inscribitur Grammaticus, et pulcherrimum de ira Dei, et Institutionum divinarum adversum gentes libros septem, et ἐπιτομὴν ejusdem operis in libro uno acephalo, et ad Asclepiadem libros duos, de persecutione librum unum, ad Probum Epistolarum libros quatuor, ad Severum Epistolarum libros duos; ad Demetrianum, auditorem suum. Epistolarum libros duos; ad eumdem de Opificio Dei, vel formatione hominis, librum unum. Hic extrema senectute magister Caesaris Crispi, filii Constantini, in Gallia fuit, qui postea a patre interfectus est.

Chapter 80. Firmianus (Lactantius)

Firmianus, known also as Lactantius, a disciple of Arnobius, during the reign of Diocletian summoned to Nicomedia with Flavius the Grammarian whose poem On medicine is still extant, taught rhetoric there and on account of his lack of pupils (since it was a Greek city) he betook himself to writing. We have a Banquet of his which he wrote as a young man in Africa and an Itinerary of a journey from Africa to Nicomedia written in hexameters, and another book which is called The Grammarian and a most beautiful one On the wrath of God, and Divine institutes against the nations, seven books, and an Epitome of the same work in one volume, without a title, also two books To Asclepiades, one book On persecution, four books of Epistles to Probus, two books of Epistles to Severus, two books of Epistles to his pupil Demetrius and one book to the same On the work of God or the creation of man. In his extreme old age he was tutor to Crispus Caesar a son of Constantine in Gaul, the same one who was afterwards put to death by his father.

Caput LXXXI

Eusebius, Caesareae Palaestinae episcopus in Scripturis divinis studiosissimus, et Bibliothecae divinae, cum Pamphilo martyre, diligentissimus pervestigator, edidit infinita volumina. De quibus haec sunt: Εὐαγγελικῆς Αποδείξεως libri viginti, Εὐαγγελικῆς Προπαρασκευῆς libri quindecim, Θεοφανείας libri quinque, Ecclesiasticae historiae libri decem, Chronicorum Canonum omnimoda historia, et eorum Ἐπιτομὴ, et de Evangeliorum Diaphonia, in Isaiam libri decem, et contra Porphyrium, qui eodem tempore scribebat in Sicilia, ut quidam putant, libri triginta, de quibus ad me viginti tantum pervenerunt; Τοπικῶν liber unus, Ἀπολογίας pro Origene libri sex, de Vita Pamphili libri tres, de Martyribus alia opuscula, et in centum quinquaginta psalmos eruditissimi commentarii, et multa alia. Floruit maxime sub Constantino imperatore et Constantio, et ob amicitiam Pamphili martyris, ab eo cognomentum sortitus est.

Chapter 81. Eusebius of Caesarea

Eusebius bishop of Caesarea in Palestine was diligent in the study of Divine Scriptures and with Pamphilus the martyr a most diligent investigator of the Holy Bible. He published a great number of volumes among which are the following: Demonstrations of the Gospel twenty books Preparations for the Gospel fifteen books, Theophany five books, Church history ten books, Chronicle of Universal history and an Epitome of this last. Also On discrepancies between the Gospels, On Isaiah, ten books, also Against Porphyry, who was writing at that same time in Sicily as some think, twenty-five books, also one book of Topics, six books of Apology for Origen, three books On the life of Pamphilus, other brief works On the martyrs, exceedingly learned Commentaries on one hundred and fifty Psalms, and many others. He flourished chiefly in the reigns of Constantine the Great and Constantius. His surname Pamphilus arose from his friendship for Pamphilus the martyr.

Caput LXXXII

Rheticius Aeduorum, id est, Augustodunensis Episcopus, sub Constantino celeberrimae famae habitus est in Galliis. Leguntur ejus Commentarii in Cantica canticorum, et aliud grande volumen adversus Novatianum, nec praeter haec quidquam ejus operum reperi.

Chapter 82. Reticius

Reticius bishop of Autun, among the Aedui, had a great reputation in Gaul in the reign of Constantine. I have read his commentaries On the Song of Songs and another great volume Against Novatian but besides these, I have found no works of his.

Caput LXXXIII

Methodius, Olympi Lyciae, et postea Tyri episcopus, nitidi compositique sermonis, adversum Porphyrium confecit libros, et Symposium decem virginum, de resurrectione opus egregium contra Origenem, et adversus eumdem de Pythonissa, et de Autexusio; in Genesim quoque et in Cantica canticorum commentarios; et multa alia, quae vulgo lectitantur. Et ad extremum novissimae persecutionis, sive, ut alii affirmant, sub Decio et Valeriano in Chalcide Graeciae, martyrio coronatus est.

Chapter 83. Methodius

Methodius, bishop of Olympus in Lycia and afterwards of Tyre, composed books Against Porphyry written in polished and logical style also a Banquet of the ten virgins, an excellent work On the resurrection, against Origen and On the Pythonissa and On free will, also against Origen. He also wrote commentaries On Genesis and On the Song of Songs and many others which are widely read. At the end of the recent persecution or, as others affirm, in the reign of Decius and Valerianus, he was crowned with martyrdom at Chalcis in Greece.

Caput LXXXIV

Juvencus, nobilissimi generis, Hispanus presbyter, quatuor Evangelia hexametris versibus pene ad verbum transferens, quatuor libros composuit, et nonnulla eodem metro ad Sacramentorum ordinem pertinentia. Floruit sub Constantino principe.

Chapter 84. Juvencus

Juvencus, a Spaniard of noble family and presbyter, translating the four gospels almost verbally in hexameter verses, composed four books. He wrote some other things in the same metre relating to the order of the sacraments. He flourished in the reign of Constantinus.

Caput LXXXV

Eustathius, genere Pamphylios, Sidetes, primum Beroae Syriae, deinde Antiochiae rexit Ecclesiam, et adversum Arianorum dogma componens multa sub Constantino principe pulsus est in exsilium Trajanopolim Thraciarum, ubi usque hodie conditus est. Exstant ejus volumina de Anima, de Engastrimytho adversum Origenem, et infinitae epistolae, quas enumerare longum est.

Chapter 85. Eustathius

Eustathius, a Pamphilian from Side, bishop first of Beroea in Syria and then of Antioch, ruled the church and, composing many things against the doctrine of the Arians, was driven into exile under the emperor Constantius into Trajanopolis in Thrace where he is until this day. Works of his are extant On the soul, On ventriloquism Against Origen and Letters too numerous to mention.

Caput LXXXVI

Marcellus, Ancyranus episcopus, sub Constantino et Constantio principibus floruit, multaque diversarum ὑποθέσεων scripsit volumina, et maxime adversum Arianos. Feruntur contra hunc Asterii et Apollinarii libri, Sabellianae eum haeresis arguentes, sed et Hilarius, in septimo adversum Arianos libro, nominis ejus, quasi haeretici meminit. Porro ille defendit, se non esse dogmatis, cujus accusatur, sed communione Julii et Athanasii, Romanae et Alexandrinae urbis pontificum, se esse munitum.

Chapter 86. Marcellus

Marcellus, bishop of Ancyra, flourished in the reign of Constantinus and Constantius anti wrote many volumes of various Propositions and especially against the Arians. Works of Asterius and Apollinarius against him are current, which accuse him of Sabellianism. Hilary too, in the seventh book of his work Against the Arians, mentions him as a heretic, but he defends himself against the charge through the fact that Julius and Athanasius bishops of Rome and Alexandria communed with him.

Caput LXXXVII

Athanasius, Alexandrinae urbis episcopus, multas Arianorum perpessus insidias, ad Constantem Galliarum principem fugit, unde reversus cum litteris, et rursum post mortem ejus fugatus, usque ad Joviani imperium latuit, a quo recepta Ecclesia, sub Valente moritur. Feruntur ejus adversum Gentes duo libri, et contra Valentem et Ursacium unus, et de virginitate, et de persecutionibus Arianorum plurimi, et de Psalmorum titulis, et historia Antonii monachi vitam continens, et ἑορταστικαὶ epistolae, et multa alia, quae enumerare longum est.

Chapter 87. Athanasius

Athanasius bishop of Alexandria, hard pressed by the wiles of the Arians, fled to Constans emperor of Gaul. Returning thence with letters and, after the death of the emperor, again taking refuge in flight, he kept in hiding until the accession of Jovian, when he returned to the church and died in the reign of Valens. Various works by him are in circulation; two book Against the nations one Against Valens and Ursacius, On virginity, very many On the persecutions of the Arians, also On the titles of the Psalms and Life of Anthony the monk, also Festal epistles and other works too numerous to mention.

Caput LXXXVIII

Antonius monachus, cujus vitam Athanasius, Alexandrinae urbis episcopus, insigni volumine prosecutus est, misit Aegyptiace ad diversa monasteria Apostolici sensus sermonisque epistolas septem, quae in Graeciam linguam translatae sunt, quarum praecipua est ad Arsenoitas. Floruit sub Constantino et filiis ejus regnantibus. Vixit annos centum quinque.

Chapter 88. Anthony

Anthony the monk, whose life Athanasius bishop of Alexandria wrote a long work upon, sent seven letters in Coptic to various monasteries, letters truly apostolic in idea and language, and which have been translated into Greek. The chief of these is To the Arsenoites. He flourished during the reign of Constantinus and his sons.

Caput LXXXIX

Basilius, Ancyranus episcopus, artis medicinae, scripsit contra Marcellum, et de Virginitate librum, et nonnulla alia, et sub rege Constantio Macedonianae partis, cum Eustathio Sebasteno, princeps fuit.

Chapter 89. Basil of Ancyra

Basil bishop of Ancyra, [a doctor of]medicine, wrote a book Against Marcellus and on virginity and some other things — and in the reign of Constantius was, with Eustathius of Sebaste, primate of Macedonia.

Caput XC

Heracliae Thraciarum episcopus, elegantis apertique sermonis, et magis historicae intelligentiae, edidit sub Constantio principe commentarios in Matthaeum, et in Joannem, et in Apostolum, et in Psalterium.

Chapter 90. Theodorus

Theodorus, bishop of Heraclea in Thrace, published in the reign of the emperor Constantius commentaries On Matthew and John, On the Epistles and On the Psalter. These are written in a polished and clear style and show an excellent historical sense.

Caput XCI

Eusebius, Emesenus episcopus, elegantis et rhetorici ingenii, innumerabiles, et qui ad plausum populi pertinent, confecit libros, magisque historiam secutus, ab his qui declamare volunt, studiosissime legitur, e quibus vel praecipui sunt adversum Judaeos, et Gentes, et Novatianos, et ad Galatas libri decem, et in Evangelia homiliae breves, sed plurimae. Floruit temporibus Constantii Imperatoris, sub quo et mortuus, Antiochiae sepultus est.

Chapter 91. Eusebius of Emesa

Eusebius of Emesa, who had fine rhetorical talent, composed innumerable works suited to win popular applause and writing historically he is most diligently read by those who practise public speaking. Among these the chief are, Against Jews, Gentiles and Novatians and Homilies on the Gospels, brief but numerous. He flourished in the reign of the emperor Constantius in whose reign he died, and was buried at Antioch.

Caput XCII

Triphyllius, Cypri Ledrensis, sive Leucotheon episcopus, eloquentissimus suae aetatis, et sub rege Constantio celeberrimus fuit. Legi ejus in Cantica canticorum commentarios. Et multa alia composuisse fertur quae in nostras manus minime pervenerunt.

Chapter 92. Triphylius

Triphylius, bishop of Ledra or Leucotheon, in Cyprus, was the most eloquent man of his age, and was distinguished during the reign of Constantius. I have read his Commentary on the Song of Songs. He is said to have written many other works, none of which have come to our hand.

Caput XCIII

Donatus, a quo Donatiani per Africam sub Constantio Constantinoque principibus pullulaverunt, asserens, a nostris Scripturas in persecutione Ethnicis traditas, totam pene Africam et maxime Numidiam, sua persuasione decepit. Exstant ejus multa ad suam haeresim pertinentia opuscula, et de Spiritu sancto liber, Ariano dogmati congruens.

Chapter 93. Donatus

Donatus, from whom the Donatians arose in Africa in the reigns of the emperors Constantinus and Constantius, asserted that the scriptures were given up to the heathen by the orthodox during the persecution, and deceived almost all Africa, and especially Numidia by his persuasiveness. Many of his works, which relate to his heresy, are extant, including On the Holy Spirit, a work which is Arian in doctrine.

Caput XCIV

Asterius, Arianae philosophus factionis, scripsit, regnante Constantio, in Epistolam ad Romanos et in Evangelia et Psalmos commentarios, et multa alia, quae a suae partis hominibus studiosissime leguntur.

Chapter 94. Asterius

Asterius, a philosopher of the Arian party, wrote, during the reign of Constantius, commentaries On the Epistle to the Romans, On the Gospels and On the Psalms, also many other works which are diligently read by those of his party.

Caput XCV

Lucifer, Caralitanus episcopus, cum Pancratio et Hilario Romanae Ecclesiae clericis, ad Constantium imperatorem a Liberio episcopo, pro fide legatus missus, cum nollet sub nomine Athanasii Nicaenam damnare fidem, in Palaestinam relegatus, mirae constantiae et praeparati animi ad martyrium, contra Constantium imperatorem scripsit librum, eique legendum misit, ac non multo post, sub Juliano principe, reversus Caralis, Valentiniano regnante, obiit.

Chapter 95. Lucifer of Cagliari

Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari, was sent by Liberius the bishop, with Pancratius and Hilary, clergy of the Roman church, to the emperor Constantius, as legates for the faith. When he would not condemn the Nicene faith as represented by Athanasius, sent again to Palestine, with wonderful constancy and willingness to meet martyrdom, he wrote a book against the emperor Constantius and sent it to be read by him, and not long after he returned to Cagliari in the reign of the emperor Julian and died in the reign of Valentinian.

Caput XCVI

Eusebius, natione Sardus, et ex Lectore urbis Romanae, Vercellensis episcopus, ob confessionem fidei a Constantio principe Scythopolim et inde Cappadociam relegatus, sub Juliano imperatore ad Ecclesiam reversus, edidit in psalmos commentarios Eusebii Caesariensis, quos de Graeco in Latinum verterat. Mortuus est Valentiniano et Valente regnantibus.

Chapter 96. Eusebius of Sardinia

Eusebius, a native of Sardinia, at first a lector at Rome and afterwards bishop of Vercelli, sent by the emperor Constantius to Scythopolis, and afterwards to Cappadocia, on account of his confession of the faith, returned to the church under the emperor Julian and published the Commentaries of Eusebius of Caesarea on the Psalms, which lie had translated from Greek into Latin, and died during the reign of Valentian and Valens.

Caput XCVII

Fortunatianus, natione Afer, Aquileiensis episcopus, imperante Constantio, in Evangelia, titulis ordinatis, brevi et rustico sermone scripsit commentarios: et in hoc habetur detestabilis, quod Liberium, Romanae urbis episcopum, pro fide ad exsilium pergentem, primus sollicitavit ac fregit, et ad subscriptionem haereseos compulit.

Chapter 97. Fortunatianus

Fortunatianus, an African by birth, bishop of Aquilia during the reign of Constantius, composed brief Commentaries on the gospels arranged by chapters, written in a rustic style, and is held in detestation because, when Liberius bishop of Rome was driven into exile for the faith, he was induced by the urgency of Fortunatianus to subscribe to heresy.

Caput XCVIII

Acacius, quem, quia luscus erat, μονόφθαλμον nuncupabant, Caesariensis Ecclesiae in Palaestina episcopus, elaboravit in Ecclesiasten decem et septem volumina, et συμμίκτων ζητημάτων sex, et multos praeterea diversosque tractatus. In tantum autem sub Constantio imperatore claruit, ut in Liberii locum Romae Felicem episcopum constitueret.

Chapter 98. Acacius

Acacius, who, because he was blind in one eye, they nicknamed "the one-eyed, " bishop of the church of Caesarea in Palestine, wrote seventeen volumes On Ecclesiastes and six of Miscellaneous questions, and many treatises besides on various subjects. He was so influential in the reign of the emperor Constantius that lie made Felix bishop of Rome in the place of Liberius.

Caput XCIX

Serapion, Thmueos episcopus, qui ob elegantiam ingenii cognomen Scholastici meruit, charus Antonii monachi, edidit adversum Manichaeum egregium librum, et de psalmorum titulis alium, et ad diversos utiles epistolas, et sub Constantio principe etiam in confessione inclytus fuit.

Chapter 99. Serapion

Serapion, bishop of Thmuis, who on account of his cultivated genius was found worthy of the surname of Scholasticus, was the intimate friend of Anthony the monk, and published an excellent book Against the Manichaeans, also another On the titles of the Psalms, and valuable Epistles to different people. In the reign of the emperor Constantius he was renowned as a confessor.

Caput C

Hilarius, urbis Pictavorum Aquitaniae episcopus, factione Saturnini Arelatensis episcopi, de synodo Biterrensi in Phrygiam relegatus, duodecim adversus Arianos confecit libros et alium librum de Synodis, quem ad Galliarum episcopos scripsit, et in psalmos commentarios, primum videlicet, et secundum, et a quinquagesimo primo usque ad sexagesimum secundum, et a centesimo decimo octavo usque ad extremum, in quo opere imitatus Origenem, nonnulla etiam de suo addidit. Est ejus et ad Constantium libellus, quem viventi Constantinopoli porrexerat, et alius in Constantium, quem post mortem ejus scripsit, et liber adversum Valentem et Ursacium, historiam Ariminensis et Seleuciensis synodi continens: et ad praefectum Salustium, sive contra Dioscorum, et liber Hymnorum et Mysteriorum alius, et commentarii in Matthaeum, et tractatus in Job, quos de Graeco Origenis ad sensum transtulit, et alius elegans libellus contra Auxentium, et nonnullae ad diversos epistolae. Aiunt quidam, scripsisse eum et in Cantica canticorum; sed a nobis hoc opus ignoratur. Mortuus est Pictavis, Valentiniato et Valente regnantibus.

Chapter 100. Hilary

Hilary, a bishop of Poitiers in Aquitania, was a member of the party of Saturninus bishop of Arles. Banished into Phrygia by the Synod of Beziers lie composed twelve books Against the Arians and another book On Councils written to the Gallican bishops, and Commentaries on the Psalms that is on the first and second, from the fifty-first to the sixty-second, and from the one hundred and eighteenth to the end of the book. In this work be imitated Origen, but added also some original matter. There is a little book of his To Constantius which he presented to the emperor while he was living in Constantinople, and another On Constantius which he wrote alter his death and a book Against Valens and Ursacius, containing a history of the Ariminian and Selucian Councils and To Sallust the prefect or Against Dioscurus, also a book of Hymns and mysteries, a commentary On Matthew and treatises On Fob, which lie translated freely from the Greek of Origen, and another elegant little work Against Auxentius and Epistles to different persons. They say he has written On the Song of Songs but this work is not known to us. He died at Poictiers during the reign of Valentinianus and Valens.

Capus CI

Victorinus, natione Afer, Romae sub Constantio principe rhetoricam docuit, et in extrema senectute, Christi se tradens fidei, scripsit adversus Arium libros more dialectico valde obscuros, et Commentarios in Apostolum.

Chapter 101. Victorinus

Victorinus, an African by birth, taught rhetoric at Rome under the emperor Constantius and in extreme old age, yielding himself to faith in Christ wrote books against Arius, written in dialectic style and very obscure language, books which can only be understood by the learned. He also wrote Commentaries on the Epistles.

Caput CII

Titus, Bostrenus episcopus, sub Juliano et Joviano principibus, fortes adversum Manichaeos scripsit libros, et nonnulla volumina alia. Moritur autem sub Valente.

Chapter 102. Titus

Titus bishop of Bostra, in the reign of the emperors Julian and Jovinian wrote vigorous works against the Manichaeans and some other things. He died under Valens.

Caput CIII

Damasus, Romanae urbis episcopus, elegans in versibus componendis ingenium habuit, multaque et brevia metro edidit, et prope octogenarius sub Theodosio principe mortuus est.

Chapter 103. Damasus

Damasus, bishop of Rome, had a fine talent for making verses and published many brief works in heroic metre. He died in the reign of the Emperor Theodosius at the age of almost eighty.

Caput CIV

Apollinarius, Laodicenus Syriae episcopus, patre presbytero, magis grammaticis in adolescentia operam dedit, et postea in sanctas Scripturas innumerabilia scribens volumina, sub Theodosio imperatore obiit. Exstant ejus adversus Porphyrium triginta libri, qui inter caetera ejus opera vel maxime probantur.

Chapter 104. Apollinarus

Apollinarus, bishop of Laodicea, in Syria, the son of a presbyter, applied himself in his youth to the diligent study of grammar, and afterwards, writing innumerable volumes on the Holy Scriptures, died in the reign of the Emperor Theodosius. There are extant thirty books by him Against Porphyry, which are generally considered as among the best of his works.

Caput CV

Gregorius, Baeticus, Eliberi Episcopus, usque ad extremam senectutem diversos mediocri sermone tractatus composuit, et de Fide elegantem librum, qui hodieque superesse dicitur.

Chapter 105. Gregory of Elvira

Gregory, bishop of Elvira, in Baetica, writing even to extreme old age, composed various treatises in mediocre language, and an elegant work On Faith. He is said to be still living.

Caput CVI

Pacianus, in Pyrenaei jugis Barcilonae episcopus, castitate et eloquentia, et tam vita, quam sermone clarus, scripsit varia opuscula, de quibus est Cervus, et contra Novatianos. Sub Theodosio principe, jam ultima senectute, mortuus est.

Chapter 106. Pacianus

Pacianus, bishop of Barcelona, in the Pyrenees Mountains, a man of chaste eloquence, and as distinguished by his life as by his speech, wrote various short works, among which are The Deer, and Against the Novatians, and died in the reign of Emperor Theodosian, in extreme old age.

Caput CVII

Photinus, de Gallograecia, Marcelli discipulus, Sirmii episcopus ordinatus, Hebionis haeresim instaurare conatus est, postea a Valentiniano principe pulsus Ecclesia, plura scripsit volumina, in quibus vel praecipua sunt contra Gentes, et ad Valentinianum libri.

Chapter 107. Photinus

Photinus, of Gallograecia, a disciple of Marcellus, and ordained bishop of Sirmium, attempted to introduce the Ebionite heresy, and afterwards having been expelled from the church by the Emperor Valentinianus, wrote many volumes, among which the most distinguished are Against the nations, and To Valentinianus.

Caput CVII

Photinus, de Gallograecia, Marcelli discipulus, Sirmii episcopus ordinatus, Hebionis haeresim instaurare conatus est, postea a Valentiniano principe pulsus Ecclesia, plura scripsit volumina, in quibus vel praecipua sunt contra Gentes, et ad Valentinianum libri.

Chapter 108. Phoebadius

Phoebadius, bishop of Agen, in Gaul, published a book Against the Arians. There are said to be other works by him, which I have not yet read. He is still living, infirm with age.

Caput CIX

Didymus, Alexandrinus, captus a parva aetate oculis, et ob id elementorum quoque ignarus, tantum miraculum sui omnibus praebuit, ut dialecticam quoque, et geometriam, quae vel maxime visu indiget, usque ad perfectum didicerit. Is plura opera et nobilia conscripsit, commentarios in psalmos omnes, commentarios in Evangelium Matthaei et Joannis, et de Dogmatibus, et contra Arianos libros duos, et de Spiritu sancto librum unum, quem ego in Latinum verti: in Isaiam tomos decem et octo, in Osee, ad me scribens, commentariorum libros tres, et in Zachariam, meo rogatu, libros quinque, et commentarios in Job, et infinita alia quae digerere proprii indicis est. Vivit usque hodie, et octogesimum tertium aetatis excessit annum.

Chapter 109. Didymus

Didymus, of Alexandria, becoming blind while very young, and therefore ignorant of the rudiments of learning, displayed such a miracle of intelligence as to learn perfectly dialectics and even geometry, sciences which especially require sight. He wrote many admirable works: Commentaries on all the Psalms, Commentaries on the Gospels of Matthew and John, On the doctrines, also two books Against the Arians, and one book On the Holy Spirit, which I translated in Latin, eighteen volumes On Isaiah, three books of commentaries On Hosea, addressed to me, and five books On Zechariah, written at my request, also commentaries On Job, and many other things, to give an account of which would be a work of itself. He is still living, and has already passed his eighty-third year.

Caput CX

Optatus Afer, episcopus Milevitanus, ex parte catholica, scripsit Valentiniano et Valente principibus, adversum Donatianae partis calumniam libros sex, in quibus asserit crimen Donatianorum in nos falso retorqueri.

Chapter 110. Optatus

Optatus the African, bishop of Milevis, during the reign of the Emperors Valentinianus and Valens, wrote in behalf of the Catholic party six books against the calumny of the Donatian party, in which he asserts that the crime of the Donatists is falsely charged upon the Catholic party.

Caput CXI

Aquilius Severus, in Hispania, de genere illius Severi, ad quem Lactantii duo epistolarum scribuntur libri, composuit volumen, quasi ὁδοιπορικὸν totius suae vitae statum continens tam prosa quam versibus, quod vocavit Καταστροφὴν, sive Πεῖραν, et sub Valentiniano principe obiit.

Chapter 111. Acilius Severus

Acilius Severus of Spain, of the family of that Severus to whom Lactantius' two books of Epistles are addressed, composed a volume of mingled poetry and prose which is a sort of guide book to his whole life. This he called Calamity or Trial. He died in the reign of Valentinianus.

Caput CXII

Cyrillus Hierosolymae episcopus, saepe pulsus Ecclesia, et receptus, ad extremum sub Theodosio principe octo annis inconcussum episcopatum tenuit. Exstant ejus κανηχήσεις, quas in adolescentia composuit.

Chapter 112. Cyril of Jerusalem

Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem often expelled by the church, and at last received, held the episcopate for eight consecutive years, in the reign of Theodosius. Certain Catachetical lectures of his, composed while he was a young man, are extant.

Caput CXIII

Euzoius, apud Thespesium rhetorem, cum Gregorio Nazianzeno episcopo adolescens Caesareae eruditus est, et ejusdem postea urbis episcopus, plurimo labore, corruptam jam Bibliothecam Origenis et Pamphili in membranis instaurare conatus est. Ad extremum sub Theodosio principe Ecclesia pulsus est. Feruntur ejus varii multiplicesque tractatus, quos nosse perfacile est.

Chapter 113. Euzoius

Euzoius, as a young man, together with Gregory, bishop of Nazianzan, was educated by Thespesius the rhetorician at Caesarea, and afterwards when bishop of the same city, with great pains attempted to restore the library, collected by Origen and Pamphilus, which had already suffered injury. At last, in the reign of the Emperor Theodosian, he was expelled from the church. Many and various treatises of his, are in circulation, and one may easily become acquainted with them.

Caput CXIV

Epiphanius, Cypri Salaminae episcopus, scripsit adversum omnes Haereses libros, et multa alia, quae ab eruditis propter res, a simplicioribus propter verba lectitantur. Superest usque hodie, et in extrema jam senectute varia cudit opera.

Chapter 114. Epiphanius

Epiphanius, bishop of Salamina in Cyprus, wrote books Against all heresies and many others which are eagerly read by the learned, on account of their subject matter, and also by the plain people, on account of their language. He is still living, and in his extreme old age composes various brief works.

Caput CXV

Ephraem, Edessenae Ecclesiae diaconus, multa Syro sermone composuit, et ad tantam venit claritudinem, ut post lectionem Scripturarum publice in quibusdam ecclesiis ejus scripta recitentur. Legi ejus de Spiritu sancto Graecum volumen, quod quidam de Syriaca lingua verterat, et acumen sublimis ingenii, etiam in translatione, cognovi. Decessit sub Valente principe.

Chapter 115. Ephraim

Ephraim, deacon of the church at Edessa, composed many works in the Syriac language, and became so distinguished that his writings are repeated publicly in some churches, after the reading of the Scriptures. I once read in Greek a volume by him On the Holy Spirit, which some one had translated from the Syriac, and recognized even in translation, the incisive power of lofty genius. He died in the reign of Valens.

Caput CXVI

Basilius, Caesareae Cappadociae, quae prius Mazaca vocabatur, episcopus, egregios contra Eunomium elaboravit libros, et de Spiritu sancto volumen, et in Hexaemeron homilias novem, et ἀσκητικὸν, et breves variosque tractatus. Moritur imperante Gratiano.

Chapter 116. Basil of Caesarea

Basil, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, the city formerly called Mazaca, composed admirable carefully written books Against Eunomius, a volume On the Holy Spirit, and nine homilies On the six days of creation, also a work On asceticism and short treatises on various subjects. He died in the reign of Gratianus.

Caput CXVII

Gregorius, primum Sasimorum, deinde Nazianzenus episcopus, vir eloquentissimus, praeceptor meus, quo Scripturas explanante, didici, ad triginta millia versuum omnia opera sua composuit. E quibus illa sunt: de morte fratris Caesarii, Φερὶ Φιλοπτωχίας, laudes Machabaeorum, laudes Cypriani, laudes Athanasii, laudes Maximi philosophi, post exsilium reversi, quem falso nomine quidam Heronis superscripserunt (quia est et alius liber vituperationem ejusdem Maximi continens; quasi non licuerit eumdem et laudare et vituperare pro tempore); et liber, hexametro versu, Virginitatis et Nuptiarum, contra se disserentium; adversum Eunomium liber unus, de Spiritu sancto liber unus. Contra Julianum imperatorem libri duo. Secutus est autem Polemonem dicendi charactere, vivoque se episcopum in loco suo ordinans, ruri vitam monachi exercuit. Decessitque ante hoc ferme triennium sub Theodosio principe.

Chapter 117. Gregory of Nazianzen

Gregory, bishop of Nazianzen, a most eloquent man, and my instructor in the Scriptures, composed works, amounting in all to thirty thousand lines, among which are On the death of his brother Caesarius, On charity, In praise of the Maccabees, In praise of Cyprian. In praise of Athanasius, In praise of Maximus the philosopher after he had returned from exile. This latter however, some superscribe with the pseudonym of Herona, since there is another work by Gregory, upbraiding this same Maximus, as if one might not praise and upbraid the same person at one thee or another as the occasion may demand. Other works of his are a book in hexameter, containing, A discussion between virginity and marriage, two books Against Eunomius, one book On the Holy Spirit, and one Against the Emperor Julian. He was a follower of Polemon in his style of speaking. Having ordained his successor in the bishopric, during his own life time, he retired to the country where he lived the life of a monk and died, three years or more ago, in the reign of Theodosius.

Caput CXVIII

Lucius, post Athanasium Arianae partis episcopus, usque ad Theodosium principem, a quo et pulsus est, Alexandrinam ecclesiam tenuit. Exstant ejus solemnes de Pascha epistolae, et pauci variarum hypotheseon libelli.

Chapter 118. Lucius

Lucius, bishop of the Arian party after Athanasius, held the bishopric of the church at Alexandria, until the thee of the Emperor Theodosius, by whom he was deposed. Certain festal epistles of his, On the passover are extant, and a few short works of Miscellaneous propositions.

Caput CXIX

Diodorus, Tarsensis episcopus; dum Antiochiae esset presbyter, magis claruit. Exstant ejus in Apostolum commentarii, et multa alia, ad Eusebii magis Emiseni characterem pertinentia, cujus cum sensum secutus sit, eloquentiam imitari non potuit, propter ignorantiam saecularium litterarum.

Chapter 119. Diodorus

Diodorus, bishop of Tarsus enjoyed a great reputation while he was still presbyter of Antioch. Commentaries of his On the epistles are extant, as well as many other works in the manner of Eusebius the great of Emesa, whose meaning he has followed, but whose eloquence he could not imitate on account of his ignorance of secular literature.

Caput CXX

Eunomius, Arianae partis, Cyzicenus episcopus, in apertam haereseos suae prorumpens blasphemiam, ut quod illi tegunt, iste publice fateretur, usque hodie vivere dicitur in Cappadocia, et multa contra Ecclesiam scribere. Responderunt ei Apollinarius, Didymus, Basilius Caesariensis, Gregorius Nazianzenus, et Gregorius Nyssenus.

Chapter 120. Eunomius

Eunomius, bishop of Cyzicus and member of the Arian party, fell into such open blasphemy in his heresy, as to proclaim publicly what the others concealed. He is said to be still living in Cappadocia, and to write much against the church. Replies to him have been made by Apollinarius, Didymus, Basil of Caesarea, Gregory Nazianzen, and Gregory of Nyssa.

Caput CXXI

Priscillianus, Abilae episcopus, qui factione Hidacii et Ithacii Treveris a Maximo tyranno caesus est, edidit multa opuscula, de quibus ad nos aliqua pervenerunt. Hic usque hodie a nonnullis Gnosticae, id est Basilidis et Marci, de quibus Irenaeus scripsit, haereseos accusatur, defendentibus aliis, non ita eum sensisse, ut arguitur.

Chapter 121. Priscillianus

Priscillianus, bishop of Abila, belonged to the party of Hydatius and Ithacius, and was put to death at Treves by the tyrant Maximus. He published many short writings, some of which have reached us. He is still accused by some, of being tainted with Gnosticism, that is, with the heresy of Basilides or Mark, of whom Irenaeus writes. while his defenders maintain that he was not at all of this way of thinking.

Caput CXXII

Latronianus, provinciae Hispaniae, valde eruditus, et in metrico opere veteribus comparandus, caesus est et ipse Treveris cum Priscilliano, Felicissimo, Juliano, Euchrotia, ejusdem factionis auctoribus. Exstant ejus ingenii opera, diversis metris edita.

Chapter 122. Latronianus

Latronianus of Spain, a man of great learning, and in the matter of versification worthy to be compared with the poets of ancient thee, was also put to death at Treves with Priscillianus, Felicissimus, Julianus, and Euchrotia, cooriginators with him of schism. Various fruits of his genius written in different metres are extant.

Caput CXXIII

Tiberianus, Baeticus, scripsit pro suspicione, qua cum Priscilliano accusabatur haereseos, apologeticum tumenti compositoque sermone; sed post suorum caedem, taedio victus exsilii, mutavit propositum, et juxta sanctam Scripturam, canis reversus ad vomitum suum (Prov. XVI, 11; II Petr., II, 22), filiam, devotam Christo virginem, matrimonio copulavit.

Chapter 123. Tiberianus

Tiberianus, the Baetican, in answer to an insinuation that he shared the heresy of Priscillian, wrote an apology in pompous and mongrel language. But after the death of his friends, overcome by the tediousness of exile, he changed his mind, as it is written in Holy Scripture "the dog returned to his vomit, " and married a nun, a virgin dedicated to Christ.

Caput CXXIV

Ambrosius, Mediolanensis episcopus, usque in praesentem diem scribit, de quo, quia superest, meum judicium subtraham, ne in alterutram partem, aut adulatio in me reprehendatur, aut veritas.

Chapter 124. Ambrose of Milan

Ambrose, a bishop of Milan, at the present time is still writing. I withhold my judgment of him, because he is still alive, fearing either to praise or blame lest in the one event, I should be blamed for adulation, and in the other for speaking the truth.

Caput CXXV

Evagrius, Antiochiae episcopus, acris ac ferventis ingenii, cum adhuc esset presbyter, diversarum hypotheseon tractatus mihi legit, quos necdum edidit; Vitam quoque Beati Antonii de Graeco Athanasii in sermonem nostrum transtulit.

Chapter 125. Evagrius

Evagrius, bishop of Antioch, a man of remarkably keen mind, while he was yet presbyter read me various treatises on various topics, which he had not yet published. He translated also the Life of the blessed Anthony from the Greek of Athanasius into our language.

Caput CXXVI

Ambrosius Alexandrinus, auditor Didymi, scripsit adversum Apollinarium volumen multorum versuum de dogmatibus, et ut ad me nuper quodam narrante perlatum est, commentarium in Job, qui usque hodie superest.

Chapter 126. Ambrose of Alexandria

Ambrose of Alexandria, pupil of Didymus, wrote a long work On doctrines against Apollinaris, and as some one has lately informed me, Commentaries on Job. He is still living.

Caput CXXVII

Maximus Philosophus, natus Alexandriae, Constantinopoli episcopus ordinatus est, et pulsus, insignem de Fide adversus Arianos scripsit librum, quem Mediolani Gratiano principi dedit.

Chapter 127. Maximus

Maximus the philosopher, born at Alexandria, ordained bishop at Constantinople and deposed, wrote a remarkable work On faith against the Arians and gave it to the Emperor Gratianus, at Milan.

Caput CXXVIII

Gregorius Nyssenus episcopus, frater Basilii Caesariensis, ante paucos annos mihi et Gregorio Nazianzeno contra Eunomium legit libros, qui et multa alia scripsisse et scribere dicitur.

Chapter 128. Gregory of Nyssa

Gregory bishop of Nyssa, the brother of Basil of Caesarea, a few years since read to Gregory Nazianzan and myself a work against Eunomius. He is said to have also written many other works, and to be still writing.

Caput CXXIX

Joannes Antiochenae Ecclesiae presbyter, Eusebii Emiseni Diodorique sectator, multa componere dicitur, de quibus περὶ ἱερωσύνης tantum legi.

Chapter 129. John of Antioch

John, presbyter of the church at Antioch, a follower of Eusebius of Emesa and Diodorus, is said to have composed many books, but of these I have only read his On the priesthood.

Caput CXXX

Gelasius Caesareae Palaestinae, post Euzoium, episcopus, accurati limatique sermonis, fertur quaedam scribere, sed celare.

Chapter 130. Gelasius

Gelasius, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine after Euzoius, is said to write more or less in carefully polished style, but not to publish his works.

Caput CXXXI

Theotimus, Scythiae Tomorum episcopus, in morem dialogorum et veteris eloquentiae breves commaticosque tractatus edidit. Audio eum et alia scribere.

Chapter 131. Theotimus

Theotimus, bishop of Tomi, in Scythia, has published brief and epigrammatical treatises, in the form of dialogues, and in olden style. I hear that he is now writing other works.

Caput CXXXII

Dexter, Paciani, de quo supra dixi, filius, clarus apud saeculum et Christi fidei deditus, fertur ad me omnimodam historiam texuisse, quam necdum legi.

Chapter 132. Dexter

Dexter, son of Pacianus whom I mentioned above, distinguished in his generation and devoted to the Christian faith, has, I am told, written a Universal History, which I have not yet read.

Caput CXXXIII

Amphilochius, Iconii episcopus nuper mihi librum legit de Spiritu sancto, quod Deus, et quod adorandus, quodque et omnipotens sit.

Chapter 133. Amphilochius

Amphilochius, bishop of Iconium, recently read to me a book On the Holy Spirit, arguing that He is God, that He is to be worshipped, and that He is omnipotent.

Caput CXXXIV

Sophronius vir apprime eruditus, laudes Bethlehem adhuc puer, et nuper de subversione Serapis insignem librum composuit: de virginitate quoque ad Eustochium, et Vitam Hilarionis monachi, opuscula mea, in Graecum eleganti sermone transtulit: Psalterium quoque et Prophetas, quos nos de Hebraeo in Latinum vertimus.

Chapter 134. Sophronius

Sophronius, a man of superlative learning, wrote while yet a lad, In praise of Bethlehem and recently a notable volume, On the overthrow of Serapis, and also to Eustachius, On virginity, and a Life of Hilarion the monk. He rendered short works of mine into Greek in a very finished style, the Psalter also, and the Prophets, which I translated from Hebrew into Latin.

Caput CXXXV

Hieronymus patre Eusebio natus, oppido Stridonis, quod a Gothis eversum, Dalmatae quondam Pannoniaeque confinium fuit, usque in praesentem annum, id est, Theodosii principis decimum quartum, haec scripsi: Vitam Pauli monachi, Epistolarum ad diversos librum unum, ad Heliodorum Exhortatoriam, Altercationem Luciferiani et Orthodoxi, Chronicon omnimodae historiae; in Hieremiam et in Ezechiel Homilias Origenis viginti octo, quas de Graeco in Latinum verti; de Seraphim, de Osanna, et de frugi et luxurioso filiis; de tribus Quaestionibus Legis veteris, Homilias in Cantica canticorum duas, adversus Helvidium de virginitate Mariae perpetua, ad Eustochium de virginitate servanda, ad Marcellam Epistolarum librum unum, Consolatoriam de morte filiae ad Paulam, in Epistolam Pauli ad Galatas commentariorum libros tres, item in Epistolam ad Ephesios libros tres, in Epistolam ad Titum librum unum, in Epistolam ad Philemonem librum unum, in Ecclesiasten commentarios, Quaestionum hebraicarum in Genesim librum unum, de Locis librum unum, hebraicorum nominum librum unum; de Spiritu sancto Didymi, quem in Latinum transtuli, librum unum; in Lucam homilias triginta novem; in Psalmos, a decimo usque ad decimum sextum, tractatus septem; Malchi, captivi monachi, vitam, et beati Hilarionis. Novum Testamentum Graece fidei reddidi, Vetus juxta Hebraicam transtuli; Epistolarum autem ad Paulam et Eustochium, quia quotidie scribuntur, incertus est numerus. Scripsi praeterea in Michaeam explanationum libros duos, in Sophoniam librum unum, in Nahum librum unum, in Habacuc libros duos, in Aggaeum librum unum. Multaque alia de opere prophetali, quae nunc habeo in manibus, et necdum expleta sunt. Adversus Jovinianum libros duos, et ad Pammachium Apologeticum et Epitaphium.

Chapter 135. Jerome

I, Jerome, son of Eusebius, of the city of Strido, which is on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia and was overthrown by the Goths, up to the present year, that is, the fourteenth of the Emperor Theodosius, have written the following: Life of Paul the monk, one book of Letters to different persons, an Exhortation to Heliodorus, Controversy of Luciferianus and Orthodoxus, Chronicle of universal history, 28 homilies of Origen on Jeremiah and Ezekiel, which I translated from Greek into Latin, On the Seraphim, On Osanna, On the prudent and the prodigal sons, On three questions of the ancient law, Homilies on the Song of Songs two, Against Helvidius, On the perpetual virginity of Mary, To Eustochius, On maintaining virginity, one book of Epistles to Marcella, a consolatory letter to Paula On the death of a daughter, three books of Commentaries on the epistle of Paul to the Galatians, likewise three books of Commentaries on the epistle to the Ephesians, On the epistle to Titus one book, On the epistle to Philemon one, Commentaries on Ecclesiastes, one book of Hebrew questions on Genesis, one book On places in Judea, one book of Hebrew names, Didymus on the Holy Spirit, which I translated into Latin one book, 39 homilies on Luke, On Psalms 10 to 16, seven books, On the captive Monk, The Life of the blessed Hilarion. I translated the New Testament from the Greek, and the Old Testament from the Hebrew, and how many Letters I have written To Paula and Eustochius I do not know, for I write daily. I wrote moreover, two books of Explanations on Micah, one book On Nahum, two books On Habakkuk, one On Zephaniah, one On Haggai, and many others On the prophets, which are not yet finished, and which I am still at work upon.

Source:
  •  http://www.patrologia-lib.ru/patrolog/hieronym/viris.htm
Source:
  • http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/2708.htm

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