James Joyce
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The Pola Notebook

Introductory Note

These notes were written by Joyce during his first months of permanent residence on the Continent in late 1904. At this time he was still working on Stephen Hero, the second version of A Portrait. The fragments which follow the paragraphs on esthetic theory are related to those noies for Stephen Hero which were attached to the first version (I, 3 above). As in the case of the Paris notebook, the original MS [manuscript] o£ these notes is lost and the text here follows Gorman 133-38. Since tie arrangement of the fragmentary notes for SH—the actual layout on the page—has no manuscript authority (as opposed to the notes for SH attached to the first version), the editor has in this case added whatever commentary seemed appropriate in brackets after each note, preserving Gorman's order. Some items lack commentary because they seem not to need it, others because of the editor's inability to provide it.

Gorman called these fragmentary notes a "selection" from the notebook—how complete we cannot tell. But the notes he printed were separated into five groups, perhaps representing five pages of manuscript. The first group includes a number of phrases Joyce associated with Yeats and his circle. The second seems mainly made up of reminders of actual incidents and bits of local color, many copied from Stanislaus Joyce's Dublin diary (partially printed as DD). The third, on J.F. Byrne, is made op almost exclusively of materials from the Dublin diary. The fourth, labeled "Dublinera" bui hard to trace in the stories, is a mixture of quotations, figurative speech, and idiomatic expressions, some of which were used in Ulysses. The fifth group is composed of three witty and outrageous sayings destined for S, D. (Stephen) who is twitted about one of them by John Eglinton in Ulysses.

Pola Notebook

Bonum est in quod tendit appetitus.

S. Thomas Aquinas

The good is that towards the possession of which an appetite tends: the good is the desirable. The true and the beautiful are the most persistent orders of the desirable. Truth is desired by the intellectual appetite which is appeased by the most satisfying relations of the intelligible; beauty is desired by the aesthetic appetite which is appeased by the most satisfying relations of the sensible. The true and the beautiful are spiritually possessed; the true by intellection, the beautiful by apprehension, and the appetites which desire to possess them, the intellectual and aesthetic appetites, are therefore spiritual appetites...

J.A.J. Pola, 7 XI 04.

Pulcera [sic in Gorman] sunt quae visa ptacent.

S. Thomas Aquinas

Those things are beautiful the apprehension of which pleases Therefore beauty is that quality of a sensible object in virtue of which its apprehension pleases or satisfies the aesthetic appetite which desires to apprehend the most satisfying  relations of the sensible. Now the act of apprehension involves at least two activities, the activity of cognition or simple perception and tlie activity of consequent satisfaction recognition. (If?) the activity of simple perception is like very other activity, itself pleasant (,?) every sensible object that has been apprehended can be said in the first plice to have been and to be beautiful in a measure beautiful; and even the most hideous object can be said to have been and to be beautiful in so far as it has been apprehended. In regard then to that part of the act of apprehension which is called the activity of simple perception there is no sensible object which cannot be said to be in a measure beautiful.

With regard to the second part cf the act of apprehension which is called the activity of recognition it may further be said that there is no activity of simple perception to which there does not succeed in whatsoever measure the activity of recognition. For by the activity of recognition is meant an activity of decision; and in accordance with this activity in all conceivable cases a sensible object is said to be satisfying or dissatisfying. But the activity of recognition is, like every other activity, itself pleasant and therefore every object that has been apprehended is secondly in whatsoever measure beautiful. ConsequenQy even the most hideous object may be said to be beautiful for this reason as it is a priori said to be beautiful in so far as it encounters the activity of simple perception.

Sensible objects, however, are said conventionally to be beautiful oe not for neither of the foregoing reasons but rather by reason of the nature, degree and duration of the satisfaction resulting from the apprehension of them and it is in accordance with these latter merely that the words "beautiful" and "ugly" are used in practical aesthetic philosophy. It remains then to be said that these words indicate only a greater or less measure of resultant satisfaction and that any sensible object, to which the word "ugly" is practically applied, an object, that is, the apprehension of which results in a small measure of aesthetic satisfaction is, in so far as its apprehension results in any measure of satisfaction whatsoever, said to be for the third time beautiful...

J.A.J. Pola, 15 XI 04.

The Act of Apprehension.

It has been said that the act of apprehension involves at least two activities—the activity of cognition or simple perception and the activity of recognition. The act of apprehension, however, in its most complete form involves three activities—the third being the activity of satisfaction. By reason of the fact that these three activities are all pleasant themselves every sensible object that has been apprehended must be doubly and may be trebly beautiful. In practical aesthetic philosophy the epithets "beautiful" and "ugly" ate applied with regard chiefly to the third activity, with regard, that is, to the nature, degree and duration of the satisfaction resultant from the apprehension of any sensible object and therefore any sensible object to which in practical aesthetic philosophy the epithet "beautiful" is applied must be trebly beautiful, must have encountered, that is, the three activities which are involved in the act of apprehension in its most involve three constituents to encounter each of these three activities...

J.A.J. Pola, 16 XI 04.

Fragmentary Notes:

Group 1.

Greek culture (Iliad) Barbarian (Bible)

Spiritual and temporal power
Priests and police in Ireland
[This idea is developed" in SH 64.]

Catacombs and vermin
La Suggestione Lctteraria
[This idea is developed in SH 194.]

Ireland—an afterthought of Europe
[SH 53.]

Beauty is so difficult
[Like the following phrase, this is Yeats quoting Beardsley. Joyce may have heard it directly fiom Yeats. Both phrases appeared in 1922, in that section of The Trembling of the Veil called "The Tragic Generation."]

I once sawa bleeding Christ—(W. Yeats] quoting Beardsley

Old Murray and Dante
[This phrase probably refers to an anecdote involving Joyce's maternal grandfather and his annt, Mrs. Conway (Dante, or Mrs. Riordan in P).]

"Miss Esposito, I never see a rose but I think of you."
[A remark made by Padraic Colum to Vera Esposito, one of two genteel sisters who acted at the Abbey Theatre.]

"I got the highest marls in mathematics of any man that ever went in."
[An overheard remark which seems to be the basis for SH 208.]

"Ah, Paris? What's Paris? The theatres, the cafés, les petites femmes des boulevards."
[Probably another overheard remark, this one has a touch of George Moore in it]

Ladies' bonnets. High ma.ss at the Pro-Cathedral.
[A reminder of a scene in one of Dublin's Catholic churches, the Pro-Cathedral, Mailborough Street]

Signs of Zodiac. Earth a living being.
[This cryptic, animistic phrase may have been set down because of its contrast with the combination of Catholicism and clothing above.]

"The English have their music-hall songs but we have the melodies."
[A bit of Irish musical patriotism, perhaps a reference to Thomas Moore's Irish Melodies.]

Moments of spiritual life
[On his way to Paris in 1903, Joyce was introduced by Yeats to C. Lewis Hind, editor of the Academy. Joyce wanted to review books lor money. Hind asked him for some "moments of his spiritual lite." Neither got what he wanted.]

'That queer thing—genius."
[In Ulysses A, E..applies this phrase to Padraic Colum (190/192). No doubt he did in life also, annoying Joyce, who referred to Colum (who worked for the Post Office) as "The Messenger-boy genius.']

"Synge's play is Greek," said Yeats, etc.
[Yeats gave Joyce this opinion of 'Riders to the Sea when he was engaged in trying to find work for both young men in London, while Joyce was on his way to Paris in 1903. Joyce resented this praise, and when he saw Synge and his manuscript in Paris attacked the play as un-Aristotelian, concealing that grudging admiration which led him to translate it into Italian some years later.]

"With all his eccentricities he remains a dear fellow."
[The sort of remark George Moore often made of his friend Edward Martyn. Joyce may have had it from Yeats.]

Dr. Doherty and the Holy City
[A reminder for the episode in which Doherty describes an imaginary visit to heaven. See Late Fragments of A Portrait at the end of this Part. Doherty is Joyce's earlier name for Oliver Gogarty, the Malachi Mulligan of Ulysses.]

Group 2:

Strangers are contemporary posterity—Chamfort.
[A very free and epigrammatic translation of this eighteenth-century French wit's Maximes et pensées sur l'homme et la  société, XLVII.]

The artillery of heaven
[Milton's metaphor for thunder.]

Mrs. Riordan and the breadcrumbs
[A lost incident involving "Dante" Conway.]

Spittin' and spattin' on the floor
[A vigorous piece of vulgar speech which probably went with an anecdote that has been lost.]

Consumatum [sic in Gorman] est
[This phrase was intended to remind Joyce of Father Dillon's fatuous peroration, used in SH 120.]

Dog an' divil
[Another picturesque Irish locution probably referring to a lost anecdote.]

Make death a capital offence in England; end of modern English plays; Fr. Delaney
[This refers to the incident used for Stephen's conversation with the President of University College (Fr. Dillon) in SH 98.]

"Yisterday" F. Butt Moloney (Clery)
[This pronunciation is used by Fr. Butt in SH and adopted by the "infantile orator" Whelan, who is modeled on Louis J. Walsh, boy orator and poet, author of "Art thou real, my ideal?", who debated with Joyce in the University College Uttiary and Historical Society. (Sec "Walshe" in Trieste Notebook, below.) Arthur Clery, another debating opponent of Joyce's, was to appear in SH as Moloney, who makes a brief entrance on page 24 of the published SH and then disappears. Clery's pronunciation being assigned to Whelan suggests that Joyce may have finally decided to base Whelan on both Walsh and Clery.]

Kinahan and Boccaccio
[Kinahan was the model for Moynihan in SH, who told Stephen that "the Decameron took the biscuit for 'smut' " (150).]

Kinahan Enc. Biitt. "Socialism"
[Another Moynihan incident in SH 149.]

The ice-cream Italian—Rossetti
[Stanislaus Joyce explains (DD 26) how Joyce reconciled his dislike of Rossetti and his admiration for Italians by comparing Rossetti to the stereotype of the ice-cream vendor. This and the following three phrases appeared first in the notes to the first version of P, Part I, Section 3 above.]

The marsupials
[Joyce's youthful, misogynistic reference to the girls of Dublin. Cf. Stanislaus Joyce's quotations from Joyce on women: "dirty animals," and "warm, soft-skinned animals" (DD 20, 22); and see SH 176, 219.]

Art has the gift of tongues
[A favorite phrase, this appears again in the "Esthetic" section of the Trieste Notebook. It is related to Joyce's notion that the artist is a priest of the imagination, the gift of tongues being the almost magical ability of the disciples of Jesus to speak to men of all nations.]

"Special reporter" novels
[In a letter of 28 Feb. 1905 Joyce remarked, "If I had a phonograph or a clever stenographist could certainty write any of the novels I have read lately in seven or eight hours."]

"on our side every time"

centripetal writing

every bond is a bond to sorrow
[This and the six following entries all have the ring of Stanislaus Joyce's voice about them, but only two have been located in the parts of his diaries that have been preserved. This phrase is employed by Mr. Duffy in "A Painful Case" (D 139/112], a character partially based on Stanislaus.]

With men women do not think independantly. [sic in Gorman]

What is the ambition of the hero's valet?
[See DD 21.]

Love—and intimate, desirous dependance. [sic in Gorman]

Church calls it a low vice to serve the body, to make a God of the belly, and a high virtue to make a temple of it.

The egoist revenges himself on his loves for the restrictions his higher morality lays upon him.

Unlike Saul, the son of Kish, Tolstoy seems to have come out to find a kingdom and to have found his father's asses.
[See DD 102.]

Coyne: Beauty is a white light
Joyce: Made up of seven colours.
[W. P. Coyne was secretary of the University College Literary and Historical Society when Joyce read "Drama and Life" at a meeting. With Clery and Walsh he was part of the opposition.]

Coyne and religious landscape
[A  lost incident.]

"The blanket with the hole in the middle was not the dress of the ancient Irish but was introduced by the indecent Saxon."
[A bit ol hyperpatriotism which obviously amused Joyce but which he seems not to have found a use for.]

Shakespeare, Sophocles and Ibsen
[A reminder of George Moore's enthusiastic reaction to a performance of A Doll's House; see p. 197 below.]

Walshe didn't know how anyone could know more about Ibsen than F. Butt did.
[See note to "Yisterday" above for information on Walsh. F. But in SH and P is not especially intelligent or well-informed.]

Starkey thinks Ibsen's mind a chaos. "Hedda should get a kick in the arse."
[James S. Starkey, who wrote as Scumas O'Sullivan.]

I am unhappy all day—the cause is I have been walking on my heels and not from the ball of my foot.
[A grave bit of self-observation by Stanislaus Joyce, which must have amused his brother; DD 34, SH 100.]

The music hall, not Poetry, a criticism of life.
[Joyce's epigrammatic adaptation of Matthew Arnold, recorded by his brother; DD 38.]

The vulgarian priest
[See DD 97, 99; SH 65.]

Group 3:

[All the notes in this group refer to Joyce's friend J.F. Byrne, the model for Cranly. Most of them were taken from Stanislaus Joyce's diary and employed in SH. For P,  to this material was added thought on Byrne from the later Trieste Diary. The DD pages to be consulted are 28, 35, 38, 45, and 74; to be compared with SH 145, 214, 216, 221; and P 207/178.]

Byrne

Features of the Middle Age: a pale, square, large-boned face, an aquiline nose with wide nostrils rather low in his face, a tighbshat lifeless mouth, full of prejudice, brown eyes set wide apart under short thick eyebrows and a long narrow forehead with short coarse black hair brushed up off it resting on his temples lite an iron crown.

The Grand Byrne

Wicklow

Brutal "bloody" "flamin"

Thomas Squaretoes

Talking like a pint

Deprecate eke so

Did that bloody boat the Seaqueen ever start?

Immortal plebeian

His Intensity the Sea-green Incorruptible

to make me drink
[A reference to Stanislaus Joyce's notion that Joyce's friends were deliberately trying to injure him by getting him drunk.]

Stannie takes off his hat

Group 4:

For "Dubliners"

High instep

Foretelling rain by pain of corns

"the world will not willing let die"
[A paraphrase of Milton's statement of hopes for his career as a poet, worked into Gabriel Conroy's speech in "The Dead".]

"which, if anything that the hand of man has wrought of noble and inspiring and beautiful deserves to live deserves to live"
[Rhetoric which Joyce admired, delivered by the orator Seymour Bushe at the Childs murder case in Dubiin, 1899, and used by Joyce in U 138/140, with some improvements.]

"that way madness lies"
[Cf. King Leaf, III, iv]

The United States of Europe

Sick and indigent roomkeepers
[Joyce applied these adjectives to the prostitute in his first draft of "Gas from a Burner." See the James Joyce Miscellany, III (Carbondale, 1962), p. 12. He borrowed them from a real organization, The Society for the Relief of Sick and Indigent Roomkeepers in the City of Dublin of all Religious Denominations (founded 1790).]

Logue: a handsome faee in repose
[Cardinal Logue: see U 471/480.]

Lightning: a livid woundlike flash

Cod plays skittles: thunder
[Joyce's lifelong preoccupation with thunder and lightning is reflected in these two notes.]

Tips:palm-oil
[Mr. Kernan uses the phrase (U 236/239) as a synonym for graft.]

Medieval artist—lice in a friar's beard
[No doubt Joyce's own epigram.]

The cold flesh of priests
[Another, probably of Joyce's own coinage, leflecting his lifelong anticlericalism.]

A woman is a fruit
[Cf. "njarsupials" above.]

Paris—a lamp for lovers hung in the wood of the world
[Very likely a Joycean coinage, reflecting the view of Paris he acquired early in life from such sources as Ibsen's Ghosts.]

To take the part of England and her tradition against Irish-America
[This may express one side of Joyce's own ambivalent feelings.]

Mac—Be Jaze, that put the kybosh on me
[Cf. U 350/556.]

Group 5:

S.D.

[The following three witticisms were apparently destined for Stephen as early as this, and, though we never see him deliver one, Joyce apparently thought of him as having done so. In U (182/184) John Eglinton teases him about the first, for which he is said to have borrowed a title from hack novelist Marie Corelli: The Sorrows of Satan.]

Si« medical students under my direction will write Paradise Lost except 100 lines.

The editor of the Evening Telegraph will write the Sensitive Plant.

Hellenism—European appendicitis.
[Hellenism, another enthusiasm which Joyce despised, was associated witli Trinity College (Professor Mahaffy) and with Gogarty. U 9/7.]

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