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Cholera and Malaria
Medicine and Health
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General articles:

Scientific papers and abstracts:

  • 1886 - Rendiconti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, December 1886.— Researches on the nature of malaria, carried out by Dr. Bernardo Schiavuzzi in Pola, Istria. The results of these experiment show the constant presence of a Bacillus, morphologically identical with that already described by Klebs And Tommasi-Crudeli, in the malarious districts of Pola, and its absence from the healthy localities. This Bacillus, artificially cultivated and inoculated on rabbits, develops fevers showing all the characteristics of swamp-fever, while in the infected animals the red corpuscles of the blood undergo the same alterations as Marchiafava and Celli have shown to be characteristic of malarious infection. These alterations, however, are attributed bv Dr. Schiavuzzi, not to the presence of a parasitic animal which has never yet been detected either in the air or in the soil of the infected districts, but to a deterioration of the blood-corpuscles directly or indirectly caused by the action of a pathological ferment of quite a different nature. He accordingly concludes that the Bacillus malaria described by Klebs and Tommasi-Cradeli in 1879 is the true cause of marsh-fever. [Source: Nature, A weekly Illustrated Journal of Science, Volume XXXV, November 1886 - April 1887, MacMillan and Co. (London & New York, 1887), Found and for many years edited by Sir J.N. Lockyer, Article of February 24, 1887, page 405.]
  • 1887 - Notes on Cholera and Malaria, by Dr. George M. Sternberg, President of American Public Health Association;
  • 1888 - Die Cholera des Jahres 1886 in Istrien und Görz-Gradiscaö Triest 1888, 4°, Adalbert Bohata. gebd.. Mit statistischen Tabellen und 16 Tafeln. Triest, im Verlage des k.k. Landes-Sanitätsrathes. 1888. 87 S. Review (PDF);
  • 1889 - Bernardo Schiavuzzi, La malaria in Istria, Atti e memorie della Società istriana d'archeologia e storia patria. Vol. 5 (Trieste, 1889), p. 319-471 (Italiano).
  • 1889 - Camillo Golgi, Intorno al preteso «bacillus malariae» di Klebs, Tommasi-Crudeli e Schiavuzzi, Archivio per le Scienze Mediche — Vol. XIII. N. 5 - 1889. p. 93-128 (Italiano).
  • 1893 - A. Laveran, Paludism, translated in 1893 by J.W. Martin (English).
  • 1931 - December 25, 1931 - Gambusia in Foreign Lands, Science (English).
  • 1933 - Hero of Istria, TIME Magazine, May 1, 1933 (English).
  • 2002 - History of eradication of malaria in Croatia. Gregurić Gracner G, Vucevac Bajt V.  Orvostort Kozl. 2002;47(1-4):145-55. Veterinary Faculty, Department of Humanities, Zagreb, Croatia.

    Malaria as a disease of miasmatic origin was known of as early as in the Ancient times. The first written documents on malaria in Croatia date from the 16th century, and concern Istria. Until the end of the 16th century, malaria was spread on almost the whole territory of Croatia. The first studies of the disease were performed as early as in the 18th century. The first piece of work on malaria in Croatia "De morbo Naroniano tractatus" (on the "Neretva disease") was written by Paduan professor Giusepe Antonio Pujati (1701-1760). The term "malaria" (after the Italian mala-aria, meaning bad air) was first mentioned in the gazette "Danica Ilirska" in 1837. During the 19th century, the sanitization of malaric areas in Istria and the Neretva valley was carried out with the aim of eradication of the disease. However, the first significant results were not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century following the arrival of Dr. Robert Koch and his associates to the Islands of Brijuni. They managed to eradicate malaria by systematic quininisation of the whole population and a number of other procedures like land-improvement or population education. Robert Koch's method of eradication of malaria showed outstanding results in 1903. According to physician Mauro Gioseffi's report from 1932 there haven't been significant outbreaks of malaria since those times. [Ed. note: this summary neglects to mention the work on malaria of the Istrian physician and research scientist, Bernardo Schiavuzzi:]

  • 2007 - Western mosquitofish as a bioindicator of exposure to organochlorine compounds. Željko Jakšić, Bojan Hamer, Nediljko Landeka and Renato Batel. "aLaboratory for Marine Molecular Toxicology, Center for Marine Research — Rovinj, Ruđer Bošković Institute, G. Paliage 5, HR-52210 Rovinj, Croatia and bPublic Health Institute of the Istrian Region, V. Nazora 3, HR-52000 Pula, Croatia. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.11.006. [Source:

    The evaluation of the alochthonous and cosmopolitan mosquitofish species Gambusia affinis suitability as a bioindicator species and the induction of its liver cytochrome P450-dependent mixed function oxygenase (MFO), measured as the 7-ethoxyresorfin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as changes in DNA integrity, measured by the Fast Micromethod®, for the monitoring of organochlorine fresh water pesticide contamination, were the main aims of the study. The test mosquitofish were exposed under laboratory conditions to several doses (0.1, 10 and 100 μg l−1) of lindane in experimental basins for up to 7 days, and a subsequent field study was carried out at five natural ponds in the south-western Istrian peninsula, Croatia, where up to 10 fish were collected from each pond. Results obtained during the studies showed positive correlations between the measured biomarkers in G. affinis liver (EROD activity and DNA integrity status) and lindane (laboratory experiment) or persistent organochlorine pollutant amounts in natural pond sediments (field study). The clear dose–responses of EROD activity and DNA integrity deterioration in G. affinis were recorded after exposure to 0.1–10 μg/l lindane and 96 h exposure to lindane, respectively. The results indicate that the mosquitofish G. affinis, due to its biological–ecological characteristics and the biomarker dose–response, is suitable for the monitoring of fresh water organochlorine pesticide contamination in general and lindane in particular.

  • 2008 - Mosquitos of Istria, a contribution to the knowledge of Croatian mosquito fauna (Diptera, Culicidae). Enrih Merdić, Ivana Boca, Mirta Sudarić Bogojević, Nediljko Landeka, in Periodicum Biologorum, Vol. 110, No. 4, 351-360.  [Source:]
  • 2009 - Malaria in Croatia in the period between 1987 to 2006. Peric Davorka; Skrobonja Ivana; Skrobonja Ante. Liječnički vjesnik 2009;1317-8): 192-5.,

    A retrospective study about the incidence of malaria in Croatia in the period from 1987 to 2006 based on the official data of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. In this period there were 201 cases of malaria registered in Croatia. The majority (79.6%) were imported from Africa, a significantly lower number from Asia (17%), and several cases from South America or from unknown locations. One case ended in death. The causative agents determined are Plasmodium falciparum (64.7%), Plasmodium vivax (19.9%), Plasmodium malariae (2.0%), Plasmodium ovale (0.5%), and mixed infections (6.0%). The causative agent was not discovered in 6.9% of the cases. Chemoprophylaxis was given to patients in regular intervals and correctly in 23.3% of the cases, in irregular intervals in 8.0% of the cases, incorrectly in 9.5% of the cases, in 9.5% the manner of application is unknown, and the remaining 48.7% did not use chemoprophylaxis. Approximately 70% of the patients are seamen, and the remaning are workers temporarily working in tropical countries and tourists. In conclusion, authors argue in favour of prevention measures in persons who stay in malarious areas, by providing them with information about the disease, applying permanent prophylaxis and rigorous control, as well as monitoring all persons arriving from risky areas. On account of the danger of the possible reintroduction of malaria and spreading imported causative agents, we should focus our attention primarily on the early detection and appropriate therapy of infected cases from abroad. {Source:

  • 2011 - Malaria in Pula in the seventies of the 19th century and the epidemic in 1879. Cigui R. In Acta Med Hist Adriat. 2012;10(1):69-82. Center of Historical Research, Rovinj, Croatia.

    Malaria played a leading role in the complex Istrian sanitary history. From the beginning of the 18th century, wars, famine, and epidemics depopulated large areas and favoured the spread of the diseases. Socioeconomic structures were also affected, generating a drop in cultivation of the fields, end of drainage works, and later, abandonment of farmed land because of the formation of palustrine stagnant water and decay of traditional sanitary regulations. The dissolution of Benedictine monasteries also played an important role in the spread of malaria. Working on tillage, drainage and cultivation, the Benedictines not only radically changed the Istrian landscape, reducing the impact and spread of infectious diseases but, through a wise land administration, they also succeeded in creating food supplies for famine periods, which were so frequent in the region. Southern Istria and the town of Pula in particular, were the most affected by the disease. Owing to severe famine that hit Istria in 1879, malaria assumed epidemic proportions, causing widespread malnutrition and physiological weakness on the population, which favoured the propagation of infectious agents. [Source:]

Other citations:

  • 1905 - Gioseffi, M. [malariologo del comitato dell'Istria] Zur Malariatilgung im südlichen Istrien im Jahre 1904. Allgem. Wiener mediz., Zeitung n. 24-29.
  • 1906 - Gioseffi, M. Zur Kenntnis des perniciösen Malariafiebers im södlichen Istrien 1494. Wien, klin. Wochenschr. 1906. S. 902. Nach dem Urteile des Verf.'s sind die Angaben über das Vorkommen von perniciösen Malariaerkrankungen im südlichen Istrien mit Vorsicht aufzunehmen, da Verwechselungen mit Typhus und Dysenterie nicht ausgeschlossen sind und die Diagnose der beschriebenen Fälle sich häufig nicht auf Blutuntersuchungen stützt. Immerhin kommen Fälle echter perniciöser Malaria vor, wie ein vom Verf. mitgeteilter, eingehend untersuchter Fall beweist, der im Landeskrankenhause in Pola zur Obduktion gelangte. // Da der betreffende Mann seit 28 Jahren nicht aus Istrien herausgekommen war, hatte er die Malaria zweifellos hier acquiriert. // Grassberger (Wien).
  • 1918 - Gioseffi, M. Zum Aufflackern der Malaria, Wien, klin. Wochenschr S. 1084.
  • 1922 - Gioseffi, M. La malaria nell'Istria media durante il 1920. Osservazioni sulla bonifica umana e sulla anofelclogia reigonale. Policlinico, seg. prat. 29, 113-119.
  • 1926 - Gioseffi, M. Le "Gambusie" nella lotta antimalarica in Istria. Rivista di Malariologia. 5(4):469-475.
  • 1928 - Sella, Massimo. 1928. I pesci larvifagi e l’esperimento di campagna antimalarica con le Gambusie a Rovigno d’Istria. Boll. Pesca, Piscic., Idrobiol., 4 (2): 174-197.
  • 1929 - Sella, Massimo. 1929. Gambusie e verde Parigi nella lotta antimalarica a Rovigno e cenni sulla lotta in Istria. Rivista di Malariologia. 8(4):357-392.
  • 1931 - Hacket, L.W. 1931. "Recent Developments in the Control of Malaria in Italy". Jour. S. Med. Assoc. 24(5):426-430. Extract: Introduction of Gambusia from United States has led to unexpected results. No horizontal vegetation, however, thick, can protect anopheline larvae from the fish, large and small, which constantly patrol every square inch of water surface. On the area of about 8 square miles which we have had under observation for five years in Istria, the spleen index in a scattered rural population has gone down from 98 per cent in 1924 to about 10 per cent in 1930. Nothing but gambusia distribution has been done in this area.
  • 1932 - Gioseffi, M. 1932. Malaria e lotta antimalarica in Istria durante il 1931 e rilievi sul quinquennio, 1927-31. Rivista di Malariologia. 11(2):197-225.
  • 1932 - September 16, 1932 - "Lo strano fenomeno della malaria in Istria", Il Piccolo di Trieste; si attribuisce all’ONC considerata responsabile dell’interruzione dei lavori di bonifica nella Valle del Quieto la responsabilità dell’epidemia dell’estate 1932. Richiesta della Direzione generale della sanità affinché l’ONC riprenda i lavori. Relazione sull’epidemia dell’Ing. G. Romiati, vicepresidente dell’Istituto autonomo per la lotta antimalarica nelle Venezie. Richiesta da parte delle autorità sanitarie al direttore dei lavori ing. Novari, perché siano installati nei fabbricati dell’Opera le reticelle metalliche e siano approntate le porte con bussole interne. Decisione dell’Opera di subconcedere al Consorzio del Quieto la bonifica della Valle e l’esecuzione dei lavori successivi. 1933. Soppressione della Direzione lavori del Quieto. {Source:}

  • 1963 - M. Dechigi & P. Sepulcri. "Malaria e bonifica in Istria tra le due guerre", in Annali del Ministero della Sanità, 1963.

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