tramway, around 1910.
A tram, tramcar,
trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne
vehicle of lighter weight and construction than a train that is designed for
the transport of passengers (and, very occasionally, freight) within,
close to, or between villages, towns and/or cities, on tracks running
primarily on streets. Melbourne, Australia, currently has the worlds
largest tram network which is a distinctive feature of the city. Other
famous cities with tramways are Milan and Zagreb.
Tramways or street railways were common
throughout the industrialised world in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries, but they disappeared from many U.S. cities in the mid-20th
century. In European cities they remained quite common. In recent
years, they have made a comeback in many U.S. cities. Many newer light
rail systems share features with trams, although a distinction may be
drawn between the two, with the term light rail preferred if
there is significant off-street running.
The terms “tram” and “tramway” were
originally Scots and Northern English words for the type of truck used
in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran — probably derived from
the North Sea Germanic word “trame” of unknown origin meaning the
“beam or shaft of a barrow or sledge”, also “a barrow” or container
Although “tram” and “tramway” have been
adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English,
North Americans preferring “trolley”, “trolley car” or “streetcar”.
The term “streetcar” is first recorded in 1860, and “trolley” is
believed to derive from the “troller,” a four-wheeled device that was
dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the
troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the
overhead wires, sometimes simply strung, sometimes on a catenary. The
trolley pole, which supplanted the troller early on, is fitted to the
top of the car and is spring-loaded in order to keep the trolley wheel
or skate, at the top of the pole, firmly in contact with the overhead
wire. The terms trolley pole and trolley wheel both derive from the
Modern trolleys often use a metal shoe
with a carbon insert instead of a trolley wheel, or have a
pantograph. Other streetcars are sometimes called trolleys, even
though strictly this may be incorrect: for example, cable cars, or
conduit cars that draw power from an underground supply.
Tourist buses made to look like
streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the U.S. (tourist
trolley). Open, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires,
generally used to ferry tourists short distances, can be called trams,
particularly in the U.S.; a famous example is the tram on the
Universal Studios backlot tour.
Electric buses, which use twin trolley
poles (one for live current, one for return) are called trolley buses,
trackless trolleys (particularly in the U.S.), or sometimes trolleys.
Tramvaj (engl. tramway)
vozilo na tračnicama namijenjen gradskomu javnom putničkom prometu. U
Istri je postojao u Puli, Opatiji i Piranu.
A tramway is a carriage
on tracks used for city wide public transportation. In Istria it existed
in Pula (Pola), Opatija (Abbazia) and Piran (Pirano).
započeo se projektirati 1887., a idejni projekt za električni
tramvaj s konjskom vučom izradio je inž. Rudolf Urbanitzki iz Linza. U prosincu
1900. reviziji projekta obavilo je poduzeće »Wrede« iz Beča.
uprava 1902 raspisala obveznice u iznosu 1 200 000 kruna, koje su ubrzo
bile potrošene za uvođenje tramvaja Proba je izvršena 15. III. 1904,
svećano otvaranje bilo je 24. III. 1904, a prvi dan redovitoga prometa
25. III. 1904., kad je prodano 6500 karata. U prva četiri mjeseca
prevezeno je 410 000 putnika te zarađeno 50 000 kruna. Pruga je
poćinjala na želj. kolodvoru. Jedan krak išao je uz obalu i Arsenal do
Sv. Polikarpa, gdje je bila remiza, a danas tvornica cementa. Drugi
vodio je uz Marine Casino preko grad. središta i uz Arenu po novno na
želj. kolodvor. Poslije se ispred Arene odvajao krak prema Šijanskoj
šumi. Postojao je i plan za produženje do Fažane te Vodnjana. Širina
kolosijeka bila je 1435 mm, jednaka željezničkomu. Nakon I. svj. rata
tramvaju su počeli konkurirati autobusi, pa k 16. VI. 1934. ukinut, a
grad. su promet preuzeli autobusi društva »Gattoni«. Tračnice su
uklonjene te danas o tramvaju u Puli nema nikakva traga.
Rudolf Urbanitzki, an engineer from Linz
designed an ideal tramway which could be driven by electricity or
pulled by horses, thus launching the Pula tramway project in 1887. In
December of 1900 the construction of the project was given to the Wrede
company from Vienna. The city issued a bond in the amount of 1,200.000
crone, which were quickly spent on the completion of the project and
introduction of the tramway line.
The trial run was completed on March
24, 1904 and the first day of regular traffic started the next day when
they sold 6,500 tickets. In the first four months the tramway transported
410,000 riders and earned 50,000 crones. The tracks started at the rail
station. One branch traversed along the coast and Arsenal to St.
Policarp where there was tthe depot and today there is the cement factory.
The second branch passed by Marina Casino and across the center of
the city along the Arena, and then again to the railroad station.
Later on they
built a branch from Arena to Siana forest. There was a plan to expand
the tracks to Fazana and Vodnjan. The width of the tracks was 1,435
millimeters or 1.435 meters (about 57 inches), which was equal to size
standard railroad tracks. After World War I, the tramway was challenged by bus lines
and so on June 16, 1934 the tramway line was closed and the public
transportation was taken over by the “Gattoni” bus company. The tracks
were removed and today in Pula there is no trace of them left.
A train service
operates north from Pula through to Slovenia; however the
line remains disconnected from the rest of the Croatian Railways
network. Plans to tunnel the 'missing link' between this line and Rijeka
have existed for many years, and despite work previously commencing on
this project, it has never seen completion.
Pula had an electric tramway system in the
early 20th century. It was built in 1904 as a part of Pula's economic
crescendo during the Austro-Hungarian rule. After WWI, during the
Fascist rule, the need for tram transportation declined and it was
finally dismantled in 1934.
A train service operates north from Pula
through to Slovenia, however the line remains disconnected from the rest
of the Croatian Railways network. Plans to tunnel the 'missing link'
between this line and from Rijeka have existed for many years, and
despite work commencing on this project previously, has never seen
projektiran je 1892. kao parni tramvaj od Matulja do Voloskoga, što nije
prihvaćeno zbog bojazni hotelijeri da će dim i buka parnih lokomotiva ometati
goste. Pripreme za električni tramvaj započele su 1900. Sudjelovali su Bečka kreditna
banka i graditelj Jakob Ludwig Müntz. Koncesija za 12 km tramvajske pruge bila
je izdana 12. XI. 1906., a promet je započeo 9. II. 1908.
upravljalo dioničko društvo Električni tramvaj Matulji-Opatija-Lovran, s
kapitalom od 2 200 000 kruna. Pruga se spuštala od želj. stanice Matulji s 212
m nadm. vis. na obalu. Prtljagu su vozili posebnim vagonima. Ljeti su Opatijom
vozili otvoreni vagoni. Konjske zaprege imale su prednost pred tramvajem, koji
se kretao brzinom do 10 km/h. Nakon I. svj. rata tramvajsko društvo prešlo je
pod upravu Società Anonima Ferrovie Elettriche Secondarie Abbazia.
Tramvaj je ukinut
31. III. 1933., a sljedeći dan počeli su voziti autobusi društva Consortio
Intercomunale Servizi Automobilistici Fiume-Abbazia.
Pruga je demontirana, a
neki su vagoni prodani u Ljubljanu. Postojali su i planovi za spajanje
i Opatije tramvajskom prugom, a bilo je utemeljeno i društvo za njezinu
The Opatija line was
planned in 1892 as a steam driven tramway line from Matulje to Volosko,
however, this concept was not accepted due to complaints by the hotel
industry fearing the smoke and noise generated by steam locomotives,
which would disturb their guests. The preliminary work for an electric
tramway started in 1900. In this project participated the Vienna Credit
Bank and builder Jakob Ludwig Müntz*. The concession for building this
12 kilometer long track was issued on February 9, 1906 and the tramway
went into operation on February 9, 1908.
The tramway line was
operated by the consortium Electrical Tramway Matulji-Opatija-Lovran
with a capitalization of 2,200.000 crone. The line was descending from
Matulje at the elevation of 212 meters (650 feet) to the sea level on
the coast. The luggage was transported in separate wagons. In the summer
they used open wagons to carried public through Opatija. Horse
carriages had advantage over the tramway, which was moving at a speed of
10 kilometers per hour due to steep terrain. After WWI, the Tramway Co,
was taken over by Società Anonima
Ferrovie Elettriche Secondarie Abbazia.
The tramway line was closed on March 31,
1933 and the next day the public transportation was conducted using
Consortio Intercomunale Servizi Automobilistici Fiume-Abbazia
busses. The tracks were removed and some of the wagons were sold to
Ljubljana. Planns egsisted to build a line that would connect Rijeka and
Opatija and they even established a construction company for that
purpose, but it never materialized.
Jakob Ludwig Münz, a stone-worker and
owner of stone-pits in Southern Tirol (Austria) and constructor of the
well-famous Grand Hotel of Pula, was a promoter of the opening of the
bus line Rijeka-Pula. He arrived at Opatija in the capacity as partner
of Alfred Wrede, the concessionaire and founder of the tram service,
which from 1908 to 1933 has linked Matulji and Lovran.
Ludwig Münz in 1903 constructed one of
the most attractive villas of Liburnian sea-side is surely
Secession-style Münz villa in Ičići.
bio je najprije otvoren 24. X. 1909. kao trolejbusna
pruga do želj. postaje Sv. Lucija na Porečkoj pruzi. Vožnja makadamskom cestom
bila je neudobna, pa s ubrzo počele pripreme za izgradnju tramvajske pruge
Piran-Sv. Lucija, a koncesija je 11. XI. 1911. dodijeljena društvu iz
Augsburga. Pruga, dužine 5447 m i širine 760 mm, otvorena je 20. VII. 1912.
Tramvajsko društvo Piran-Sveta Lucija-Portorož imalo je pet motornih kola i
dvije prikolice. Troškove izgradnje od 150 000 kruna snosili su općini Piran i
Pokrajina Istra. Tramvaj je vozio najviše. 26 km/h, a el. energiju dobivao je iz
elektrane u brodogradilištu. Premda je ukidanjem pruge Trst-Poreč 1935.
izgubio putnike, prometovao je sve do 31. VIII. 1953. Vagoni su potom prodani
LIT.: J. Orbanić,
Istarske željeznice. Zagreb 1996.
The tramway in Piran went into operation
on October 24, 1909 as a trolley bus line to the railroad station of
Santa Lucia on the Parenzo (now Poreč) railroad line. Riding on the
macadam-covered roads was very uncomfortable and because of that the
city decided to start planning for a tramway line Piran-Santa Lucia. The
building concession was given to a company from Augsburg on November 11,
The rail line was 5.5 kilometers (3.6
miles) in length and 760 millimeters (30.4 inches) wide, and it was put
in service on July 20, 1912. The tramway company Piran-Santa
Lucia-Portorose (now Portorož) had five motorized cars and two trailers.
The construction cost of 150,000 crone was covered
(who paid for?) by the county of Piran and region of Istria. The
maximum tramway speed was 26 km/hr and the electric power was provided
by the shipyard’s electric plant. Even though the closure of the train
line Parenzo-Trieste caused the tramway line to lose a lot of riders, it
continued operating until August 31, 1953. After that the cars where
“sold” to Sarajevo.
(Piran) The old electric trams were closed
in 1956 and dreadful traffic congestion has been the result. Already in
the 1980’s a short distance Park’n Ride was introduced from a large and
recently further expanded car park on land reclaimed from the sea just
outside Piran. The whole of the town itself was designated as a single
car park and a barrier installed which has reduced excessive visitor
access and made even locals pay (a discounted amount) to enter the town.
It was therefore an implicit, early and largely unreported example of
road pricing for residents and tourists. The management of the system
has become rather rigid and it operates with the same fixed prices:
summer and winter, weekend and weekday, day and night. There is a
frequent but often over-loaded and congestion affected bus service
between old town and resort, made up partly of a shuttle bus that
penetrates to the main Tartini Square and regional services that reach
only to the bus station at the edge of the historic area.
Tramvaj Zicara –Opcina
Transporti, koji posluju sa jednom mrežom od 60 autobusnih linija i dvije
brodske linije, također posluju sa Opicina tramvajskom linijom, koja se
sastoji od jedne hibridne kombinacije tramvaja i zičare, koja omogućava
direknu vezu između gradskog centra I Ville Opicine. Tramvaj je izgrađen
1902-e godine kako bi povezao centar Trsta na morksoj razini do Opicine koja
je udaljena 5 kilometara pokraj slovenske granice ali na 339,5 metara
nadmorske visine. Da bi se tramvaj popeo do Opcina brijega, tramvaj je
upotrebio zubčani sistem između Piazza Scorcola i Vetta Scorcola. Prema tome
od 1902 do 1928-e godine linija Trieste-Opicina je upotrebljavala zubčani
sistem pogona, međutim takav sustav ima jedan nedostatak a to je sporost i
velike troškove. Ali 1928 godine taj zubčani system bio je odstranjen i
zičara je izgađena na tom mjestu, tako da su nabavili dva specialna vagona
koji su gurali sačuvane tramvajske vagone po toj zičazri. Ta konfiguracija ima
prednosti u povećanju prometa i smanjenje troškova poslovanja radi manje
upotrebe energije. Energija spustajućih vagona kompensirala je upotrebu
energije uspinjajućih vagona. Jedini uvijet je bio da su ti vagoni
sinhronizirani tako da jedni stignu u isto vrijeme na dno zičare kad drugi
stignu na vrh zičare.
Funicular railway -
Tram Funicular -
Trieste Trasporti, which operates a
network of some 60 bus routes and two boat services, also operate the
Opicina Tramway, a unique hybrid
tramway  and
funicular railway  that provides a more direct connection between the
city centre and Villa Opicina.[The
tramway was built in 1902 to link the center of Trieste, at the see
level, to Opicina which is at quite 5 km to the north near the Slovenian
border but at 339,5 m above the see. To climb up to the Opicina hill,
the tramway was first used with a rack section between Piazza Scorcola
and Vetta Scorcola. So, since 1902 to 1928 the Trenovia Trieste -
Opicina was a cog-wheel tramway but this configuration had the
disadvantage to be too slow for the traffic and too expensive. In 1928
the rack was removed and a funicular section was built at the same place
with two special cars used to push and retain the tramway cars. This
configuration has the advantage to increase the traffic and to be more
economic because the necessary energy is very small. The energy of the
descending cars is used for the ascending ones. The only constraints is
that the tramway cars must be synchronized, they must arrive at the same
time at the lower and upper stations of the funicular.
By electric traction on the entire
line, supplemented by a cable section (the only one of its kind).
Normal doublefacing tram cars
coupled, on the Piazza Scorcola - Vetta Scorcola
section, to two buffer wagons attached to the ends of a traction cable
running between the rails.
The terminus is located in the
centre of town, in Piazza Oberdan, and the cable railway section begins
just a few hundred meters away.
The tram's original form of
transport (a cross between an extraurban tram and a cable railway) takes you up from the city
to the surrounding beautiful natural environment of the Carso plateau,
348 m above sea level.
Inauguration of electric traction rack-railway on the
Piazza Scorcola - Vetta Scorcola section, with double axle cars
of Austrian construction.
Construction of an extension, with terminus moved from via Nazionale
to Opicina station.
April 26, 1928:
Opening of cable section replacing the rack-railway.
Introduction of 5 bogie railcars built by Officine Meccaniche STANGA
- T.I.B.B. (Tecnomasio Italiano Brown Boveri).
1942: Introduction of
two further bogie railcars identical to the five existing ones.
Restoration of service after rebuilding of the track and replacement
of the superstructure and buffer wagons (phase 1).
Completion of work in compliance with ministerial regulations
regarding the funicolar railway, with the introduction of automatic
running and control system (phase 2).